Woodworking Glossary: Terms & Definitions Every Woodworker Should Know

Dovetail, rabbet, kerf… sounds like a foreign language, right?

If you’re diving into the world of woodworking or just looking to refine your knowledge, you’ve come to the right place. I’ve put together a comprehensive glossary of woodworking terminology that every enthusiast should know. This isn’t just any ordinary list of definitions; I’ve included practical examples and insights to help you understand and apply each term in your projects.

So, whether you’re impressing your woodworking buddies or following along with my tutorials, this glossary will be your go-to guide for all things woodworking.

This glossary is a constant work in progress; please contact me if you notice something I am missing or any discrepancies.

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Jump To Each Section: A – C | D – F | G – I | J – L | M – O | P – S | T – V | W – Z

Abrasive: A material used for grinding, smoothing, or polishing surfaces, typically characterized by its hardness and granularity. Example: Sandpaper is an abrasive used in woodworking to smooth the surface of timber.

Acetone: A volatile, colorless solvent used to dissolve various organic substances, often used as a cleaner or thinner for resins, paints, and varnishes. Example: Acetone is used to clean brushes and equipment after using epoxy resin.

Adhesive: A substance used for sticking objects or materials together, available in various forms such as liquid, paste, tape, or film. Example: Wood glue, an adhesive, is used to bond two pieces of wood together in carpentry.

Adze: A tool similar to an axe but with an arched blade at right angles to the handle, used for cutting or shaping large pieces of wood. Example: An adze is used in traditional carpentry to hollow out timber for boat building.

Air Dried: A process of drying lumber where the wood is stacked and exposed to the open air to naturally reduce its moisture content. Example: Air-dried lumber is often preferred for its minimal warping and reduced internal stresses compared to kiln-dried wood.

Aliphatic resin glue: A type of adhesive also known as carpenter’s glue or yellow glue, known for its strong bond and fast setting time. Example: Aliphatic resin glue is commonly used for bonding wooden joints in furniture making.

Allen Head: A type of screw head that is driven with an Allen wrench, characterized by a hexagonal recess. Example: Allen head screws are often used in assembling flat-pack furniture due to their ease of use and strong hold.

All-thread: A type of metal rod that is threaded along its entire length, used in various applications for fastening or as an adjustment mechanism. Example: All-thread rods can be cut to desired lengths and used to create custom clamps in woodworking.

Ampere: A unit of electric current, often referred to in its abbreviated form as amp. Example: The amperage of a power tool, like a circular saw, indicates its power consumption and efficiency.

Annual Growth Ring: The rings visible in a cross-section of a tree trunk or limb, representing one year of growth, used to determine the age and growth conditions of the tree. Example: Counting the annual growth rings of a tree stump can reveal the tree’s age and growth patterns over the years.

Anti-Kickback Device: A safety feature on power saws designed to prevent the workpiece from moving backward towards the operator. Example: The anti-kickback device on a table saw consists of pawls that allow wood to move forward but lock if it starts to kick back.

Antikickback Pawls: Components of a saw’s anti-kickback device, consisting of spring-loaded arms with teeth that grab onto the wood if it begins to kick back. Example: Antikickback pawls are essential for safety when ripping long boards on a table saw.

Applied Carving: A decorative wood carving technique where the carved piece is created separately and then attached to the furniture. Example: Applied carving is often seen on the ornate legs of a grand piano.

Apron: The horizontal piece of wood that connects the legs of a table or chair, providing structural support. Example: The apron on a dining table hides the joinery and adds to the table’s aesthetic appeal.

Arbor: The spindle or shaft on which a cutting tool, such as a saw blade or router bit, is mounted. Example: The arbor on a circular saw holds the blade securely for precise cuts.

Architect’s Rule: A specialized ruler used by architects, featuring scales for reading dimensions on architectural drawings. Example: An architect’s rule can be used to accurately scale down measurements for a model or miniature furniture piece.

Arris: The sharp edge formed by the intersection of two surfaces, typically on wood or stone. Example: Sanding the arris of a wooden table leg can soften its appearance and make it safer to the touch.

Auger: A tool used for boring holes in wood, featuring a spiraled shaft with a cutting edge. Example: An auger is ideal for drilling deep, clean holes for dowels in woodworking projects.

Auger Bit: A drill bit specifically designed for use with an auger, characterized by its spiral shape. Example: An auger bit is used in a hand brace for drilling holes in thick timber.

Auxiliary Fence: A temporary fence attached to a power tool’s existing fence to extend its functionality or protect it. Example: An auxiliary fence on a table saw can help support long boards during cutting.

Awl: A small pointed tool used for marking wood or leather, often used in woodworking for precise layout work. Example: An awl is used to mark the start point for a drill bit on wood.

Back Saw: A hand saw with a stiffened rib on the edge opposite the cutting edge, used for precise cuts. Example: A back saw is perfect for making accurate dovetail joints in cabinetry.

Backer Board: A flat material used behind the workpiece to support it and prevent tear-out during cutting or drilling. Example: A backer board is essential when drilling through plywood to avoid splintering on the exit side.

Baltic Birch Plywood: A high-quality plywood made from multiple layers of birch veneer, known for its strength and stability. Example: Baltic birch plywood is often used in high-end cabinet making due to its fine grain and strength.

Baluster: A vertical post, often decorative, that supports the handrail of a staircase. Example: Wooden balusters are commonly found in traditional staircases, adding both support and aesthetic appeal.

Band Clamp: A clamp that uses a flexible band, often made of metal or fabric, to apply even pressure around irregularly shaped objects. Example: A band clamp is ideal for securing the joints of a round or oval picture frame during gluing.

Band Saw: A power saw with a long, flexible blade that runs around two or more wheels, used for curved and straight cuts. Example: A band saw is perfect for cutting intricate shapes and resawing lumber into thinner boards.

Banister: The handrail on a staircase, often supported by balusters. Example: The wooden banister was polished to a high shine, providing both safety and elegance to the staircase.

Bar Clamp: A type of clamp with a long, flat bar that spans between two clamping jaws, used for holding large items. Example: Bar clamps are essential for gluing up wide panels, such as tabletops.

Bark: The outer protective layer of a tree, sometimes left on wood in rustic furniture designs. Example: The coffee table featured a natural edge with the bark left intact for a rustic look.

Barrel Hinge: A small, cylindrical hinge that is almost invisible when installed, often used in fine cabinetry. Example: Barrel hinges were used on the small wooden box to keep the focus on the wood’s natural beauty.

Base Plate: The flat bottom part of a power tool, such as a router or circular saw, that rests on the material being worked. Example: The base plate of the router glided smoothly over the wood surface during the cutting process.

Basswood: A soft, lightweight wood, often used in carving and for making musical instruments. Example: Basswood was chosen for the carving project due to its fine grain and ease of working.

Batten: A narrow strip of wood used to cover seams or for decorative purposes. Example: Wooden battens were used to add visual interest to the paneling.

Battenboard: A type of board-and-batten siding where wide boards are spaced and covered by narrower battens. Example: The garden shed featured a charming battenboard exterior.

Bd. Ft. (Board Foot): A unit of measurement for lumber, representing a board 12 inches by 12 inches by 1 inch. Example: The project required 20 bd. ft. of oak lumber.

Beading Tool: A hand tool or router bit used to create a rounded, bead-like profile on the edge of a workpiece. Example: A beading tool was used to add decorative edges to the bookshelf.

Beam: A long, thick piece of wood or metal used to support weight, especially as part of a building’s framework. Example: Wooden beams were exposed in the ceiling, adding a rustic charm to the room.

Bearing: A mechanical component used in tools and machinery to reduce friction and support moving parts. Example: The bearings in the table saw’s arbor were replaced to ensure smooth blade operation.

Belt Sander: A power sander that uses a continuous loop of sandpaper (belt) for rapid material removal. Example: The belt sander was used to quickly smooth the rough surface of the wooden plank.

Bench Dogs: Pegs that fit into holes in a workbench, used in conjunction with a vise to hold workpieces in place. Example: Bench dogs were used to secure the piece of wood while planing its surface.

Bench Grinder: A stationary machine with abrasive wheels for sharpening tools, grinding, and polishing. Example: The bench grinder was used to sharpen chisels and plane irons.

Bench Knife: A small, sharp knife used for precise cutting and trimming tasks in woodworking. Example: The bench knife was used for detailed marquetry work.

Bench Plane: A hand plane used for flattening, reducing the thickness, and smoothing the surface of wood. Example: A bench plane was essential for preparing rough lumber for fine woodworking projects.

Benchtop: The flat, workable surface of a workbench, often made of hardwood or metal. Example: The sturdy benchtop provided a stable surface for hand planing.

Bevel: An angle other than 90 degrees on the edge or end of a piece of wood. Example: A bevel was cut on the edges of the tabletop to create a more refined look.

Bevel Gauge: A tool used to transfer or measure angles, often used in joinery and carpentry. Example: The bevel gauge was set to the correct angle for cutting the roof rafters.

Bevel Square: An adjustable tool used for marking and checking angles, similar to a combination square but with a movable blade. Example: The bevel square was used to mark the angled cuts for the picture frame.

Bevel-edge Chisel: A chisel with an angled edge that allows for easier cutting into corners and tight spaces. Example: A bevel-edge chisel was used for cleaning out the corners of a dovetail joint.

Bind: The resistance encountered when a saw blade or other cutting tool becomes pinched in the material being cut. Example: The saw blade began to bind in the thick oak, indicating the need for a relief cut.

Bird’s Eye: A distinctive pattern in wood, resembling small swirling eyes, typically found in maple. Example: The bird’s eye maple veneer added a unique and decorative element to the cabinet doors.

Biscuit Joiner: A power tool used to cut slots in wood, into which biscuits are inserted to join pieces together. Example: A biscuit joiner was used to align and strengthen the joints in the bookshelf assembly.

Biscuit Joint: A method of joining wood using oval-shaped pieces (biscuits) inserted into matching slots in both pieces of wood. Example: Biscuit joints were used to securely join the tabletop to its apron.

Bit: The cutting or drilling part of a tool, such as a drill bit or router bit. Example: A Forstner bit was chosen for drilling clean, flat-bottomed holes in the cabinet doors.

Bit/Cutter: A term used to describe the interchangeable cutting part of a tool, such as a drill or router. Example: The router was fitted with a dovetail bit to cut precise joints.

Blade: The cutting part of a tool or machine, such as a saw blade or knife blade. Example: A sharp blade was essential for making clean cuts on the plywood.

Blade Guard: A safety device that covers the blade of a saw to protect the user and prevent accidental contact. Example: The blade guard on the table saw was adjusted to just clear the thickness of the wood.

Blade Runout: The wobbling or deviation of a saw blade from its true rotational path, affecting the cut’s accuracy. Example: Blade runout was minimized by ensuring the saw blade was properly mounted and aligned.

Blade Stabilizers: Devices fitted on a saw blade to reduce vibration and improve cutting accuracy. Example: Blade stabilizers were added to the circular saw for smoother, more precise cuts.

Blind: Referring to a joint or fastening method that is not visible from the surface of the workpiece. Example: Blind dowels were used to join the table legs without any visible fasteners.

Blind Dovetail Joint: A dovetail joint where the tails and pins are hidden from one face of the joint. Example: Blind dovetail joints were used in the drawer construction to hide the joinery from the front face.

Blind Mortise-and-Tenon Joint: A joint where the tenon fits into a mortise that does not go all the way through the wood, making it invisible from one side. Example: The blind mortise-and-tenon joint provided a strong connection in the chair’s frame without being visible from the outside.

Block Plane: A small hand plane designed for cutting across the wood grain, especially for end grain and small areas. Example: A block plane was used to smooth the edges and corners of the wooden box.

Blockboard: A panel product consisting of a core of wooden strips between two layers of plywood or veneer. Example: Blockboard was chosen for the cabinet doors due to its stability and lightweight.

Board Foot: A unit of measure for lumber, representing a volume of one square foot, one inch thick. Example: The project required 30 board feet of maple.

Bole: The trunk of a tree. Example: The bole of the oak tree was milled into large, beautiful planks.

Bookmatched: Wood veneer or boards that are mirror images of each other, often used for visual symmetry. Example: The bookmatched walnut veneer created a striking pattern on the tabletop.

Bow: A warp along the length of a board, causing it to curve. Example: A slight bow in the board was corrected using a jointer.

Box Joint: A corner joint with interlocking square fingers, resembling a box’s teeth. Example: Box joints were used for the corners of the wooden box to add both strength and decorative appeal.

Box Nail: A lighter, thinner nail used for assembling boxes and crates. Example: Box nails were used to construct the lightweight pine crate.

Brace: A hand tool with a U-shaped grip, used with auger bits for drilling holes. Example: The carpenter used a brace and bit to drill holes for the door’s hardware.

Brace and Bit: A combination of a brace (hand drill) and a drill bit, used for boring holes. Example: The brace and bit were essential for drilling accurate, clean holes in the chair’s armrests.

Brad: A small, thin nail with a fine point, often used in finish carpentry. Example: Brads were used to attach the trim without splitting the wood.

Brad Nailer: A power tool that drives brad nails into wood, used for delicate trim and molding. Example: A brad nailer quickly and neatly secured the baseboard to the wall.

Brad Point: The sharp, pointed tip on a brad nail or drill bit, designed for precise positioning. Example: The brad point bit was perfect for drilling dowel holes without wandering.

Brad-point Bit: A drill bit with a sharp center point and outer spurs for clean holes in wood. Example: The brad-point bit created clean, splinter-free holes in the hardwood.

Branding Iron: A tool used to burn a mark or logo into wood. Example: The craftsman used a branding iron to add his signature to the handmade furniture.

Bridle Joint: A woodworking joint similar to a mortise and tenon, but with an open slot. Example: The bridle joint provided a strong connection for the table’s leg and rail.

British Standard Whitworth (BSW): A standard for screw threads and sizes used in the UK. Example: The workbench vise used BSW bolts for its mounting hardware.

Buildup: Layers of material, such as wood or finish, added to create thickness or height. Example: The buildup of varnish enhanced the depth and luster of the wood grain.

Bullnose: A rounded edge on a piece of wood or material. Example: The stair treads featured a bullnose edge for a smooth, finished look.

Burl: A knotty growth on a tree, yielding wood with a rich, swirling grain pattern. Example: The burl wood was turned into a stunning, one-of-a-kind bowl.

Burnisher: A tool used to polish or sharpen the edge of a scraper. Example: The cabinetmaker used a burnisher to turn the burr on his card scraper.

Burr: A small piece of metal or wood raised on the surface, often created during drilling or cutting. Example: The burr on the drilled hole was removed with a deburring tool.

Butt Hinge: A common type of hinge with two rectangular leaves joined by a pin or rod. Example: Butt hinges were used for hanging the interior doors.

Butt Joint: A simple joint where two pieces of wood are joined at their ends or edges. Example: The frame was assembled using basic butt joints.

Butt Matched: Wood veneer sheets arranged end to end without flipping for pattern continuity. Example: The butt-matched veneer created a seamless look on the large conference table.

Butterfly Hinge: A decorative hinge shaped like a butterfly, often used on small boxes or cabinets. Example: Butterfly hinges added a charming detail to the jewelry box.

Cabinet Saw: A heavy-duty table saw with a large, flat surface and powerful motor, used in cabinetry and furniture making. Example: The cabinet saw’s precision and power made it ideal for cutting large sheets of plywood.

Cabinet Scraper: A flat piece of steel used for smoothing wood surfaces. Example: The cabinet scraper removed the last traces of machine marks from the tabletop.

Cabriole Leg: A furniture leg that is curved outward and then inward in a gentle S-shape. Example: The cabriole legs added elegance to the Queen Anne-style dining chairs.

CAD (Computer-Aided Design): Software used for precision drawing and designing of objects. Example: The woodworker used CAD software to plan and visualize the custom bookcase.

Caliper: A measuring tool used to determine the thickness or diameter of materials. Example: The woodturner used calipers to ensure consistent thickness in his bowl turning.

Cap Iron: A part of a hand plane that applies pressure to the cutting iron and helps reduce chatter. Example: Adjusting the cap iron helped produce smoother shavings with less tear-out.

Carbide Tipped: Tools or blades with a tip made of carbide, a very hard material, for increased durability. Example: The carbide-tipped saw blade stayed sharp longer, even after cutting through hardwoods.

Carcase (Carcass): The main body or frame of a piece of furniture, excluding doors, drawers, and hardware. Example: The carcass of the cabinet was constructed from solid oak.

Carcass: Another term for the main body or frame of a piece of furniture. Example: The carcass of the wardrobe was carefully assembled to ensure squareness and stability.

Card Scraper: A thin piece of steel used for smoothing wood surfaces, especially useful for working with difficult grain. Example: The card scraper effectively removed the tear-out on the figured maple.

Carpenter’s Pencil: A thick, flat pencil used for marking cuts and lines on wood. Example: The carpenter’s pencil marked clear, straight lines across the rough lumber.

Carving: The process of shaping wood by cutting away material, often used for decorative purposes. Example: Intricate carving on the cabinet doors showcased the craftsman’s skill.

Carving in the Round: A carving technique where the finished piece is fully dimensional and can be viewed from all sides. Example: The bird sculpture was an exquisite example of carving in the round.

Case-Hardened Lumber: Wood that has dried unevenly, causing internal stresses and potential warping. Example: The case-hardened lumber was difficult to work with due to its tendency to twist when cut.

Casework: The construction of furniture or cabinetry, typically involving a box-like structure. Example: The casework for the kitchen cabinets was meticulously planned and executed.

Casing: Trim or molding used around doors and windows. Example: The new casing enhanced the appearance of the windows and doors throughout the house.

Caul: A flat piece of wood or other material used to distribute clamping pressure evenly. Example: Cauls were used to ensure even pressure while gluing up the panel.

C-clamp: A clamp shaped like the letter C, used for holding workpieces in place. Example: C-clamps secured the workpiece to the workbench during sanding.

Mechanical Compressor: A machine that compresses air for use with pneumatic tools. Example: The mechanical compressor powered the air nailer for the framing job.

Cellular Wood Panel: A panel made from wood fibers and resin, designed to be lightweight yet strong. Example: Cellular wood panels were used for the interior doors to reduce weight.

Centerline: A line drawn or imagined through the center of a workpiece, used as a reference point. Example: The centerline was marked to ensure symmetrical drilling of the holes.

CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute): A measurement of airflow, often used to rate the effectiveness of dust collection systems. Example: The dust collector’s high CFM rating ensured efficient removal of wood dust from the workshop.

Chamfer: A beveled edge connecting two surfaces of an object, usually at a 45-degree angle. Example: A chamfer was added to the edges of the tabletop to create a more refined look.

Checking: The occurrence of cracks in wood, often due to drying or aging. Example: The antique table showed signs of checking, indicating its age and the need for restoration.

Cheek: The side face of a tenon or the side wall of a mortise in joinery. Example: The precision of the tenon’s cheek was crucial for a snug mortise and tenon joint.

Chip Carving: A method of carving in which knives or chisels are used to remove small chips of material, creating patterns or designs. Example: The intricate chip carving on the box lid added a decorative touch.

Chip-out: The unwanted splintering or tearing of wood during cutting or drilling. Example: To avoid chip-out, a backing board was placed behind the workpiece during drilling.

Chisel: A hand tool with a straight blade used for cutting or shaping wood, stone, or metal. Example: The woodworker used a chisel to carve the intricate details into the wooden sculpture.

Chuck: A clamp on a drill or lathe that holds and rotates the drill bit or workpiece. Example: The chuck securely held the drill bit in place while drilling holes in the wood.

Chuck Key: A tool used to tighten or loosen the jaws of a drill chuck. Example: The chuck key was used to change the drill bit on the power drill.

Circular Saw: A power saw with a round, rotating blade used for cutting wood, metal, or plastic. Example: The circular saw made quick work of cutting the plywood sheets to size.

Clamp: A device used to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation. Example: Clamps were used to hold the glued boards together while the glue dried.

Clamp Blocks: Small pieces of wood or other material used under clamps to distribute pressure and prevent damage to the workpiece. Example: Clamp blocks protected the surface of the wood from clamp marks during gluing.

Claw: The curved, forked end of a hammer or similar tool, used for pulling out nails. Example: The claw of the hammer was used to remove nails from the old decking.

Clear: A term used to describe lumber that is free of knots, splits, or other defects. Example: Clear pine was selected for the project to ensure a smooth, uniform finish.

Clearance Hole: A hole drilled into a material that is larger than the screw’s diameter, allowing the screw to pass through without threading into the material. Example: Clearance holes were drilled in the top board to allow the screws to attach it to the base.

Cleat: A strip of wood or metal attached to a wall or other surface to support shelving or other fixtures. Example: Wooden cleats were mounted to the wall to support the heavy shelves.

Climb Cut: A cutting technique in routing where the feed direction is the same as the cutting edge rotation, often used for a cleaner edge but with increased risk of kickback. Example: A climb cut was carefully made on the router table to avoid tear-out on the veneer edge.

Closed Coat: A type of sandpaper where the abrasive particles cover the entire surface, providing a more aggressive and uniform cut. Example: Closed coat sandpaper was used to quickly remove the old finish from the table.

Close-Grained: Wood with fine fibers and small pores, resulting in a smooth texture. Example: The close-grained maple was ideal for the delicate carving work.

Clutch: A mechanism in a power tool that disengages the drive shaft to prevent overdriving or stripping screws. Example: The drill’s clutch setting was adjusted to prevent over-tightening the screws.

CNC Router: A computer-controlled cutting machine used for cutting, carving, and engraving materials like wood, composites, aluminum, steel, plastics, and foams. Example: The CNC router precisely cut complex patterns into the wood panels.

Coarse-Grained: Wood with large fibers and visible pores, often resulting in a textured appearance. Example: The coarse-grained oak gave the table a rustic, natural look.

Coated Abrasives: Abrasive materials like sandpaper, where an abrasive is bonded to a backing material like paper or cloth. Example: Coated abrasives were used for sanding the wood to a smooth finish.

Collet: A sleeve used in a router or other tool to hold a bit or cutter in place. Example: The collet ensured a secure grip on the router bit during operation.

Collet Runout: The degree of wobble or misalignment in a collet, affecting the accuracy of the tool. Example: Minimal collet runout was essential for precision routing work.

Color Rendering Index (CRI): A measure of how accurately a light source reveals the colors of objects compared to natural light. Example: High CRI lighting in the workshop helped in accurately matching the wood stains.

Combination Blade: A circular saw blade designed for both ripping and crosscutting. Example: A combination blade was used on the table saw for various cuts, eliminating the need to change blades frequently.

Combination Machine: A woodworking machine that combines several functions like sawing, planing, and drilling into one unit. Example: The combination machine saved space in the small workshop.

Combination Square: A multi-purpose measuring tool with a ruler and interchangeable heads for 90-degree and 45-degree angles. Example: The combination square was used for marking and checking the angles on the frame.

Common Grade Lumber: Lumber with more knots and defects than higher grades, often used where appearance is less critical. Example: Common grade lumber was chosen for the shed’s framing due to its lower cost.

Common Nail: A type of nail used for rough construction work, characterized by a thick shank. Example: Common nails were used to fasten the framing lumber.

Common Pitch: The angle at which the blade of a hand plane is set, typically around 45 degrees. Example: The common pitch of the plane blade was ideal for general-purpose planing.

Compass: A tool with two legs, one with a point and the other with a pencil or scribing tool, used for drawing circles or arcs. Example: A compass was used to draw the curved design on the wood before cutting.

Composite Board: A board made from wood fibers or particles combined with resin and compressed into sheets. Example: Composite board was used for the cabinet backs due to its stability and smooth surface.

Composites: Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties. Example: Composites like fiberglass were used in combination with wood for enhanced durability in outdoor furniture.

Compound Miter: A cut made at an angle on both the plane and edge of the wood, often used for crown molding. Example: The compound miter saw was adjusted to make precise cuts for the picture frame corners.

Compound Miter Saw: A power saw that can make both miter and bevel cuts, useful for trim work. Example: The compound miter saw was essential for cutting the complex angles needed for the window trim.

Compression Wood: A type of reaction wood in softwoods, formed on the lower side of branches and leaning stems, characterized by high density and uneven shrinkage. Example: The compression wood in the pine board made it challenging to achieve a flat, even surface.

Contact Adhesive: A type of adhesive applied to both surfaces to be bonded, which adhere on contact. Example: Contact adhesive was used to securely bond the laminate to the countertop.

Contractor’s Saw: A portable, lightweight table saw designed for contractors to use on job sites. Example: The contractor’s saw was brought to the construction site for on-the-spot cutting tasks.

Cope: To shape the end of a molding or piece of wood so that it conforms to the contour of an adjoining piece. Example: The carpenter coped the baseboard to fit snugly against the profile of the door trim.

Cope-&-Stick Joint: A joint commonly used in frame and panel construction, where the frame pieces are joined by a coped profile and a groove (stick). Example: The cabinet doors were constructed using cope-and-stick joints for a traditional appearance.

Coping Saw: A small hand saw with a narrow blade, used for cutting intricate external shapes and interior cutouts. Example: The coping saw was perfect for cutting the intricate patterns in the scrollwork.

Core: The central layer of a plywood or other laminated material. Example: The quality of the plywood depended heavily on the stability and uniformity of its core.

Corner Clamp: A clamp designed to hold two pieces at a 90-degree angle, often used in frame or box construction. Example: Corner clamps were used to ensure the picture frame corners were perfectly square during gluing.

Counterbore: A cylindrical recess around a hole, often used to accommodate the head of a bolt or screw. Example: Counterbores were made to allow the bolt heads to sit flush with the surface of the wood.

Countersink: A conical cut made around a hole to allow a screw head to sit flush with or below the surface of the material. Example: Countersinks were drilled for the screws to achieve a smooth, finished look on the wooden bench.

Cove: A concave profile cut into the edge of a piece of wood, often used for decorative moldings. Example: A cove bit was used on the router to create a decorative edge on the shelf.

Crossbearer: A support beam placed perpendicular to joists or other structural elements. Example: Crossbearers were added to the frame for additional support and stability.

Crosscut: A cut made across the grain of the wood. Example: The table saw was set up for crosscutting the boards to length.

Crosscut Blade: A circular saw blade designed for making smooth cuts across the grain of the wood. Example: A crosscut blade was installed in the miter saw for cleaner cuts on the trim pieces.

Crotch Lumber: Wood cut from the area where a tree trunk divides into branches, often featuring unique grain patterns. Example: The crotch lumber was chosen for its distinctive grain to make a striking tabletop.

Crowning: The slight upward curvature of a board along its length. Example: The crowning of the floorboards was adjusted during installation to ensure a level surface.

Cup: A warp across the width of a board, causing the edges to rise or fall relative to the center. Example: The woodworker had to address the cup in the plank before using it for the cabinet door.

Cupping: A form of warping where the edges of a board curve up or down, creating a concave or convex shape. Example: The floorboards showed signs of cupping due to moisture imbalance.

Curly: A type of wood grain that has a three-dimensional, wavy pattern, often found in maple. Example: The curly maple was selected for its unique texture and visual depth for the custom guitar.

Cutoff: A piece of wood that is cut off and typically discarded or used for smaller projects. Example: The cutoffs from the long boards were saved for future small woodworking projects.

Cutoff Blade: A saw blade designed for making clean, cross-grain cuts. Example: A cutoff blade was used on the miter saw for precise, clean cuts on the trim pieces.

Cutoff Saw: A power saw, typically a miter saw, used for making short, precise cuts. Example: The cutoff saw was essential for cutting the framing pieces to exact lengths.

Cutterhead: The rotating part of a planer or jointer that holds the cutting blades. Example: The cutterhead was carefully adjusted to ensure a smooth finish on the wood surface.

Cutting Diagram: A visual representation showing how to cut pieces from a material to minimize waste. Example: The cutting diagram was followed to efficiently use the plywood sheet.

Cutting List: A detailed list of parts and dimensions needed for a woodworking project. Example: The cutting list was checked to ensure all pieces were cut to the correct sizes.

Cyanoacrylic: A fast-setting adhesive, commonly known as super glue. Example: Cyanoacrylic glue was used to quickly bond the small parts of the model.

Cyclone: A type of dust collection system that separates large particles from the air using a spinning motion. Example: The cyclone dust collector efficiently removed wood chips and dust from the workshop air.

Dado: A rectangular groove cut into a piece of wood, often used to house another piece. Example: A dado was cut into the shelves to fit them securely into the bookcase sides.

Dado Blade: A circular saw blade used to cut wide, flat-bottomed grooves. Example: The dado blade was set up on the table saw to cut the grooves for the drawer bottoms.

Dado Joint: A joint where one piece of wood fits into a groove cut into another piece. Example: Dado joints were used to assemble the sturdy shelving unit.

Danish Oil: A blend of oil and varnish that penetrates wood and provides a durable finish. Example: Danish oil was applied to the oak table to enhance its natural color and grain.

Dead-Blow Mallet: A hammer with a hollow head filled with sand or lead shot to minimize rebound when striking. Example: The dead-blow mallet was used to adjust the wooden joints without damaging the surface.

Deadman: A support device on a workbench used to hold long boards level while working. Example: The deadman was essential for supporting the long planks during planing.

Deciduous: Trees that shed their leaves annually, typically hardwoods like oak and maple. Example: The deciduous trees in the area were a source of high-quality hardwood for furniture making.

Deck Screw: A corrosion-resistant screw designed for outdoor use, especially in decking. Example: Deck screws were used to securely attach the cedar boards to the deck frame.

Denatured Alcohol: Ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous and undrinkable, often used as a solvent or cleaning agent. Example: Denatured alcohol was used to clean the wood surface before applying the finish.

Densification: The process of increasing the density of a material, often through heat and pressure. Example: The densification of the wood made it more durable for outdoor use.

Density: The mass per unit volume of a material, indicating its compactness. Example: The high density of the hardwood made it ideal for the heavy-duty workbench top.

Dentil: A series of small, rectangular blocks used as a decorative element in a cornice or molding. Example: The fireplace mantel was adorned with a classic dentil molding.

Detent: A mechanism that locks a moving part in a specific position, often found in tools with adjustable angles. Example: The saw’s blade angle was set using the detent for accurate miter cuts.

Dewaxed Shellac: Shellac that has had its natural wax content removed, often used as a sealer or wood finish. Example: Dewaxed shellac was applied as a sealer before the final varnish coat.

DF (Douglas Fir): A type of softwood known for its strength, commonly used in construction and woodworking. Example: Douglas Fir was chosen for the framing due to its strength and availability.

D-handle: A type of handle, shaped like the letter D, often found on saws and other tools for a comfortable grip. Example: The D-handle jigsaw allowed for easy maneuvering and control during cutting.

Dial Gauge: A precision measuring instrument with a dial display, used for measuring small distances or angles. Example: The dial gauge was used to set the precise depth of the router bit.

Dial Indicator: A tool used to measure minute amounts of movement in parts, often in machinery setup. Example: The dial indicator was essential for calibrating the accuracy of the lathe.

Diamond Dresser: A tool used to dress or reshape grinding wheels, featuring a diamond tip for high abrasion resistance. Example: The diamond dresser was used to restore the flat surface of the grinding wheel.

Dimensional Lumber: Lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Example: The carpenter purchased dimensional lumber for the framing project.

Direct Drive: A system where a power tool’s motor is directly connected to its blade or bit, providing more power and efficiency. Example: The circular saw’s direct drive mechanism ensured efficient power transfer for smooth cutting.

Disk Sander: A power tool with a rotating abrasive disk used for smoothing and shaping wood. Example: The disk sander was perfect for quickly smoothing the edges of the wooden pieces.

Distortion: The warping or deformation of wood due to uneven drying or external stress. Example: The wooden plank showed signs of distortion after being stored improperly.

Double-Stick Tape: Adhesive tape coated on both sides, used to temporarily bond materials together. Example: Double-stick tape was used to hold the template in place during routing.

Dovetail Joint: A strong woodworking joint known for interlocking wedge-shaped cuts. Example: Dovetail joints were used for the drawers to ensure durability and aesthetic appeal.

Dowel: A cylindrical wooden pin used to reinforce joints or align pieces. Example: Dowels were used to strengthen the connection between the table legs and the top.

Dowel Center: A tool used to mark dowel hole positions on a mating piece. Example: The dowel center ensured accurate alignment for the dowel holes in the shelf.

Doweling: The process of using dowels to join or align pieces of wood. Example: Doweling was chosen for its simplicity and strength in assembling the bookcase.

Downdraft Table: A work surface with built-in dust collection to pull sawdust and debris away from the work area. Example: The downdraft table kept the workspace clean while sanding the wood.

Dozuki: A Japanese saw with a thin blade, used for precise, fine cuts. Example: The dozuki was ideal for making the intricate cuts needed for the model ship.

Drawer Slide: Hardware that allows a drawer to move in and out smoothly. Example: High-quality drawer slides were installed for smooth operation of the kitchen drawers.

Drawknife: A tool with a blade between two handles, used to shape wood by pulling it toward oneself. Example: The artisan used a drawknife to skillfully shape the chair’s curved arms.

Dressed Size: The dimensions of lumber after it has been planed and surfaced. Example: The dressed size of the lumber was slightly smaller than its nominal size due to planing.

Drill Bit: A cutting tool attached to a drill, used to make circular holes. Example: A variety of drill bits were used for different hole sizes in the project.

Drill Press: A stationary power tool for drilling precise holes, with a mounted drill bit that moves vertically. Example: The drill press was used for making consistently spaced holes in the shelving.

Drip Groove: A channel cut into the underside of a countertop or sill to prevent water from seeping under. Example: A drip groove was added to the window sill to direct rainwater away.

Driver Bit: A tool attachment for a drill or driver, used to drive screws. Example: A Phillips driver bit was used to fasten the screws in the cabinet assembly.

Drum Sander: A power sander with a rotating cylindrical drum covered in abrasive paper. Example: The drum sander was effective in quickly smoothing the large tabletop.

Dry Board: Lumber that has been dried to remove moisture, either naturally or in a kiln. Example: Dry boards were selected to minimize warping and shrinkage in the finished product.

Dry Fit: The process of assembling components without glue or fasteners to check for fit and alignment. Example: A dry fit was performed to ensure all parts of the bookshelf fit together properly before gluing.

Dry Time: The period required for a finish, adhesive, or paint to fully dry or cure. Example: The varnish had a dry time of 24 hours before the second coat could be applied.

Drying Oil: An oil that hardens to a tough, solid film after exposure to air. Example: Linseed oil, a drying oil, was used to finish the wooden bowl.

Drywall Screw: A type of fastener with a sharp point and wide threads, used for attaching drywall to studs. Example: Drywall screws were used to secure the wallboard during the room renovation.

Dual Bevel: Referring to a saw, especially a miter saw, that can tilt both left and right for bevel cuts. Example: The dual bevel miter saw allowed for versatile angle cuts without repositioning the workpiece.

Dust Collection System: A system of devices used to collect wood dust and chips from woodworking machines. Example: The dust collection system effectively kept the workshop air clean and free of sawdust.

Dust Collector: A device that uses a fan and filter to capture and remove dust from the air. Example: A dust collector was installed to manage the dust produced by the sanding machines.

Dust Mask: A protective mask worn to prevent inhalation of dust particles. Example: A dust mask was essential safety gear while working in the dusty environment of the woodshop.

Dust Nibs: Small bumps in a finish, typically caused by dust settling on the surface before it dries. Example: Light sanding was needed to remove the dust nibs from the varnished surface.

Dust Port: An opening on a power tool where a dust collection hose can be attached. Example: The dust port on the table saw was connected to the shop’s dust collection system to minimize sawdust.

Ear Protection: Devices worn to protect the ears from loud noises, especially in woodworking environments. Example: Ear protection is essential when operating loud machinery like table saws.

Earlywood: The part of a tree’s annual growth ring that is formed during the beginning of the growing season, typically lighter and less dense. Example: The earlywood in the pine board was noticeably lighter than the latewood.

Ease: To slightly round or soften the sharp edge of a piece of wood. Example: The carpenter used sandpaper to ease the edges of the tabletop.

Eaves: The lower edges of a roof that overhang the building’s walls. Example: The eaves were designed to extend beyond the walls to provide shade and protection from rain.

Edge and End Spacing: The distance between the edges or ends of boards when laid side by side or end to end. Example: Proper edge and end spacing was maintained for the deck boards to allow for wood expansion.

Edge Banding: A strip of material applied to the edges of plywood or other composite boards to create a finished look. Example: Edge banding was applied to the plywood shelves to hide the raw edges.

Edge Grain: The side of the wood where the growth rings appear as long lines, typically stronger and more stable. Example: The cutting board was made with edge grain orientation for durability.

Edge Joining: The process of joining two boards along their edges to form a larger surface. Example: Edge joining was used to create a wide tabletop from narrower boards.

Edge-Banding Tape: A pre-glued tape used to cover the exposed edges of materials like plywood or particle board. Example: Edge-banding tape was ironed onto the edges of the bookshelf for a finished appearance.

Edge-Belt Sander: A sander with a continuous loop belt for smoothing and shaping the edges of workpieces. Example: The edge-belt sander was perfect for quickly sanding down the rough edges of the wooden planks.

Edging: A strip of wood or other material applied to the edge of a panel or board for aesthetic or protective purposes. Example: Wooden edging was added to the plywood to enhance its appearance and durability.

Elbow: A fitting in plumbing or ductwork that allows for a change in direction. Example: An elbow was used to redirect the dust collection hose around a corner.

Enamel: A type of paint that dries to a hard, glossy finish, often used for its durability. Example: Enamel paint was chosen for the cabinets due to its resistance to wear and tear.

End Grain: The grain of wood seen when it is cut across the growth rings, typically more absorbent and harder to finish. Example: The end grain cutting board showcased the unique patterns of the wood.

End-Jointed: Boards that have been joined end to end to increase their length. Example: End-jointed lumber was used to achieve the necessary length for the long countertop.

Engineer’s Square: A precision tool used for checking right angles and marking straight lines. Example: The engineer’s square ensured that the corners of the frame were perfectly square.

Engineered Wood: Wood products made from wood fibers, chips, or veneers bonded together with adhesives. Example: Engineered wood flooring was selected for its stability and resistance to warping.

Epoxy Resin: A strong, adhesive resin used for bonding and coating, known for its durability and chemical resistance. Example: Epoxy resin was used to fill and stabilize the cracks in the wooden table.

Equilibrium Moisture Content: The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when exposed to the surrounding air. Example: The wood was allowed to reach equilibrium moisture content before use to prevent future warping.

Escutcheon: A decorative plate that surrounds a keyhole, doorknob, or light switch. Example: Brass escutcheons added a decorative touch to the antique dresser drawers.

Expansion Bit: A drill bit with an adjustable cutting diameter, used for drilling large holes. Example: An expansion bit was used to drill the custom-sized hole for the clock mechanism.

Extension Table: An additional table surface that can be attached to a machine, such as a table saw, to support larger workpieces. Example: The extension table provided extra support for cutting long boards on the table saw.

Extruded Particle Board: A type of particle board made by extruding wood chips with adhesive under high pressure and heat. Example: Extruded particle board was chosen for its strength and uniformity for the shelving project.

Face: The broadest surface of a board, typically used as the main visible surface in a finished piece. Example: The face of the board was sanded smooth and finished with varnish.

Face Edge: The edge of a board that is adjacent to the face, often finished and visible in the final product. Example: The face edge of the shelf was routed to add a decorative profile.

Face Frame: A frame attached to the front of a cabinet box, providing structure and a mounting point for doors and hardware. Example: The face frame gave the kitchen cabinets a sturdy and finished appearance.

Face Grain: The surface of wood where the growth rings appear as loops and arches, often the most visually appealing part of the wood. Example: The table’s top was made with face grain up for aesthetic appeal.

Face Plate: A flat disk attached to a lathe spindle, used for mounting and turning irregularly shaped or large workpieces. Example: A face plate was used to securely mount the large bowl blank on the lathe.

Face Side: The preferred or best-looking side of a board, used as the visible surface in a project. Example: The face side of the wood was selected for its attractive grain and color.

False Front: A decorative front attached to a drawer or cabinet that does not function as the actual drawer front. Example: False fronts were added to the dishwasher and refrigerator to match the kitchen cabinetry.

FAS (Firsts and Seconds): The highest grade of hardwood lumber, primarily clear and free of defects. Example: FAS grade oak was chosen for its high quality and uniform appearance for the furniture project.

Fascia: A flat board that covers the ends of roof rafters or the front of a shelf or cabinet. Example: The fascia board was painted to match the exterior trim of the house.

Featherboard: A safety device used on power tools to hold the workpiece firmly against the tool’s fence or table. Example: A featherboard was used on the router table to ensure consistent and safe cuts.

Feed Rate: The speed at which a workpiece is fed into a cutting tool or machine. Example: Adjusting the feed rate on the planer resulted in a smoother finish on the wood.

Feeler Gauge: A tool with a set of thin metal blades of varying thicknesses used to measure small gaps or clearances. Example: A feeler gauge was used to set the precise gap between the table saw blade and the throat plate.

Fence: A guide on a power tool, such as a table saw or router table, that keeps the workpiece a set distance from the blade or bit. Example: The fence was adjusted to ensure accurate and repeatable cuts on the table saw.

Ferrule: A metal ring or cap placed on the end of a tool handle to prevent splitting. Example: The chisel’s handle was reinforced with a ferrule for added durability.

Fibreboard: A type of engineered wood product made from wood fibers bonded together with resin. Example: Fibreboard was used as a backing material for the bookcase due to its smooth surface.

Fiddleback: A pattern in wood characterized by a series of wavy, rippling figures, resembling the back of a violin. Example: The fiddleback maple was chosen for its striking appearance in the custom violin.

Figure: The distinctive pattern or grain in wood, often enhanced through finishing techniques. Example: The figure in the walnut wood added depth and beauty to the dining table.

Figured Wood: Wood with an unusual or distinctive grain pattern, often used for decorative purposes. Example: Figured wood was selected for the cabinet doors to make them a focal point of the room.

Filler: A substance used to fill pores, cracks, or imperfections in wood before finishing. Example: Wood filler was applied to the nail holes to create a smooth, finished surface.

Film Finish: A type of finish that forms a protective film on the surface of the wood. Example: A polyurethane film finish was applied to the tabletop for durability and water resistance.

Finger Joint: A joint made by interlocking a series of cut fingers or projections from two pieces of wood. Example: Finger joints were used to connect the lengths of wood in the molding for added strength.

Finial: A decorative ornament at the top of a piece of furniture, post, or architectural feature. Example: The bed’s headboard was adorned with elegantly carved finials.

Firsts and Seconds (FAS): The highest grade of hardwood lumber, used for its high quality and minimal defects. Example: FAS cherry wood was selected for its uniformity and quality for the custom cabinetry.

Fishtail: A tool or chisel with a flared, fishtail-shaped end, used for detailed woodworking. Example: The fishtail chisel was perfect for reaching tight corners in the intricate carving.

Fixed-Base: Referring to a type of router with a non-adjustable base, typically used for edge shaping and joinery. Example: The fixed-base router was set up for consistent depth cuts for the dadoes.

Fixture: A device used to hold a workpiece in place during machining or assembly. Example: A custom fixture was created to hold the parts in place during the glue-up process.

Flange: A projecting rim or edge on a tool or component, often used for attachment or stabilization. Example: The flange on the circular saw blade prevented it from moving laterally during cuts.

Flat Grain: Wood grain that runs parallel to the board’s widest surface, typically seen in plain-sawn lumber. Example: The flat grain pattern in the oak flooring provided a classic and uniform look.

Flat Sawn: A method of sawing lumber where the cuts are made parallel to the growth rings, resulting in a more pronounced grain pattern. Example: Flat sawn boards were chosen for their distinctive grain patterns for the paneling.

Flattening Agent: A substance added to finishes to reduce gloss and create a matte or satin appearance. Example: A flattening agent was mixed into the varnish to achieve a low-luster finish on the bookshelf.

Flat-Top Tooth: A type of saw blade tooth with a flat top, used for ripping and general-purpose cutting. Example: The flat-top tooth design on the table saw blade provided efficient and smooth cuts.

Flint: A hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, historically used as an abrasive. Example: Flint paper, an early form of sandpaper, was used for hand sanding wood surfaces.

Flitch: A slab of wood cut directly from a log, often with the natural edge and bark still attached. Example: The flitch was used to create a live-edge table, showcasing the natural beauty of the wood.

Floor Board: The boards used for the surface of a floor, typically made of hardwood or engineered wood. Example: Oak floor boards were installed for their durability and timeless appearance.

Flush: Being even or level with a surface, with no protruding parts. Example: The hinges were installed flush with the cabinet door to ensure a smooth, seamless appearance.

Flush-trim Router Bit: A router bit with a bearing that rides along the edge of the workpiece, used for trimming laminate or veneer flush with a substrate. Example: A flush-trim router bit was used to trim the excess edge banding from the plywood shelves.

Flute: A groove or channel in a tool, such as a drill bit or chisel, designed to remove chips and debris. Example: The flutes on the drill bit efficiently removed wood shavings during drilling.

Forstner Bit: A drill bit with a flat bottom and sharp, circular rim, used for drilling precise, flat-bottomed holes. Example: Forstner bits were used to drill the recesses for the cabinet door hinges.

Frameless Cabinet: A style of cabinetry without a face frame, where doors and drawers attach directly to the cabinet box. Example: Frameless cabinets were chosen for their modern, clean lines in the kitchen remodel.

Framing Lumber: Lumber used in the structural framing of buildings, typically pine, spruce, or fir. Example: Framing lumber was used to construct the framework of the new addition to the house.

Framing Nailer: A pneumatic or battery-powered tool used to drive large nails, typically used in framing construction. Example: The framing nailer significantly sped up the process of assembling the wooden frame.

French Cleat: A system for hanging cabinets or shelves, consisting of two pieces of wood cut at complementary angles. Example: A French cleat was used to securely mount the heavy wall cabinet.

French Polish: A traditional wood finishing technique involving the application of shellac with a pad, resulting in a high-gloss finish. Example: The antique table was restored with a French polish to bring out the depth and luster of the wood.

Fret Saw: A saw with a fine-toothed, narrow blade used for intricate cutting work, especially in woodworking. Example: The fret saw was perfect for detailed scrollwork in the wooden ornaments.

Fretwork: Ornamental design carved or cut into wood, often featuring geometric patterns or scroll-like designs. Example: The intricate fretwork on the cabinet doors added a decorative touch to the piece.

Friction Polish: A type of wood finish that is applied and then heated by friction, usually with a cloth, to produce a high-gloss finish. Example: The woodturner used friction polish on the lathe to achieve a smooth, shiny finish on the bowl.

Frog: The adjustable part of a hand plane that holds the blade and can be moved to control the depth of cut. Example: Adjusting the frog allowed for finer shavings and a smoother finish on the wooden surface.

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council): An international organization that promotes responsible management of the world’s forests. Example: The carpenter preferred using wood certified by the FSC to ensure it was sourced from sustainably managed forests.

Full-Extension Slide: Drawer slides that allow a drawer to open to the full length of the slide, providing complete access to the drawer contents. Example: Full-extension slides were installed in the kitchen drawers for easy access to the items at the back.

Furring Battens: Strips of wood or metal used to level or raise surfaces for finishing, such as walls or ceilings. Example: Furring battens were used to create an even surface for the drywall installation.

Garnet: A natural abrasive mineral used in sandpaper, known for its reddish-brown color. Example: Garnet sandpaper was chosen for hand-sanding the wood, as it provided a smooth finish.

GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter): A safety device that quickly breaks an electrical circuit to prevent serious harm from an ongoing electric shock. Example: A GFCI outlet was installed in the workshop to enhance electrical safety, especially near potential water sources.

GFCI Outlet (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter): An electrical outlet with a built-in GFCI to protect against electrical shock. Example: The GFCI outlet in the bathroom ensured safety from electrical hazards in a moist environment.

Gib Screws: Screws used to secure the gib, a strip of metal in machinery, which holds components in place. Example: The gib screws were tightened to secure the blade alignment in the planer.

Gingerbread: Decorative woodwork with intricate cut-out designs, often found in Victorian architecture. Example: The gingerbread trim added a charming, ornate element to the historic home’s exterior.

Glue Line: The line or joint where two pieces of wood are bonded together with adhesive. Example: A strong, barely visible glue line indicated a well-executed joint in the wooden tabletop.

Glue-up: The process of joining pieces of wood together using adhesive. Example: The glue-up for the bookshelf required careful alignment and clamping to ensure a strong bond.

Glulam: Short for “glued laminated timber,” a type of structural timber product comprising multiple layers of dimensioned lumber bonded together with durable adhesives. Example: Glulam beams were used in the construction of the wooden bridge for their strength and load-bearing capacity.

Going: The horizontal distance from the front to the back of a step in a staircase. Example: The going of each stair tread was carefully measured to ensure comfort and safety in use.

Gouge: A chisel with a curved cutting edge, used in woodworking for carving or shaping. Example: The woodcarver used a gouge to create the intricate details in the wooden sculpture.

Grain: The pattern of fibers in wood, which can affect its texture and strength. Example: The grain of the oak wood gave the table a distinctive, natural appearance.

Grain Direction: The orientation of the wood fibers in a piece of lumber, which influences how the wood will react when cut or finished. Example: Sanding with the grain direction resulted in a smoother surface and reduced the risk of scratches.

Grain Reversal: A change in the direction of the wood grain, often leading to an irregular pattern. Example: Grain reversal in the wood panel made it challenging to plane without causing tear-out.

Green Wood: Wood that has been freshly cut and still contains a high amount of moisture. Example: The bowl was turned from green wood, which was easier to shape but required careful drying to prevent cracking.

Green Woodturning: The process of turning wood on a lathe when it is still green or freshly cut and not fully dried. Example: Green woodturning was preferred for its ease of cutting, but the final pieces needed time to dry and stabilize.

Grit: The size of the abrasive particles on sandpaper, indicating the coarseness or fineness of the sandpaper. Example: A higher grit number was used for the final sanding to achieve a smooth finish.

Groove: A long, narrow cut or channel in a piece of wood, usually cut along the grain. Example: A groove was routed along the length of the board to fit the panel.

Groove Joint: A joint formed by fitting a tongue on one piece of wood into a groove on another piece. Example: The groove joint provided a strong connection for the bookcase shelves.

Growth Ring: The concentric layers of wood formed each year as a tree grows, visible in a cross-section of the trunk. Example: The growth rings in the tree stump showed its age and the varying conditions during each year of growth.

Guard: A safety device on power tools designed to protect the user from the cutting blade or moving parts. Example: The guard on the table saw was essential to prevent accidental contact with the blade.

Guide Blocks: Components on a bandsaw that support the blade and keep it aligned during cutting. Example: Adjusting the guide blocks ensured the bandsaw blade stayed straight and true during cuts.

Guide Collar: A device attached to a router or other tool to guide it along a template or edge. Example: The guide collar helped maintain consistent distance from the edge while routing the pattern.

Gullet: The curved space between the teeth of a saw blade, which allows for chip removal during cutting. Example: A larger gullet on the saw blade helped improve chip removal when cutting thicker materials.

Gum Pocket: An accumulation of resin or sap within the wood, often appearing as a dark, sticky area. Example: The gum pocket in the pine board was carefully avoided during the finishing process.

Gusset: A triangular or rectangular piece of wood used to reinforce joints, especially in frames or trusses. Example: Gussets were added to the corners of the frame for additional strength and stability.

Hacksaw: A saw with a fine-toothed, replaceable blade, typically used for cutting metal or hard materials. Example: The hacksaw was used to cut the metal rods to size for the woodworking jig.

Half Lap Joint: A joint where half the thickness of two pieces of wood is removed so they can overlap and be joined flush. Example: Half lap joints were used to connect the cross members in the wooden frame.

Half Pin: In dovetail joinery, a half-sized pin at the ends of the joint, providing a symmetrical appearance. Example: The half pins were carefully cut to complete the dovetail joint on the drawer front.

Half-Blind Dovetail Joint: A dovetail joint where the pins and tails are only partially visible, commonly used in drawer construction. Example: Half-blind dovetails were chosen for the drawers to hide the joinery from the front view.

Hand Plane: A tool used to shape and smooth wood, consisting of a blade set in a flat body. Example: The hand plane was used to flatten and smooth the surface of the wooden board.

Handscrew Clamp: A traditional woodworking clamp with two long wooden jaws and threaded spindles for adjustment. Example: Handscrew clamps were used to hold the workpiece securely without marring the wood.

Handwheel: A circular, hand-operated control on machinery, used for making fine adjustments. Example: The handwheel on the lathe was used to adjust the tailstock position precisely.

Hardboard: A type of engineered wood product made from compressed wood fibers, known for its smooth surface. Example: Hardboard was used as a backing material for the picture frame due to its flatness and stability.

Hardwood: Wood from deciduous trees, typically denser and used for furniture, flooring, and cabinetry. Example: Hardwood like oak and maple was chosen for its durability and aesthetic appeal in the custom furniture.

Haunch: The portion of a tenon that is left uncut to fit into a mortise, providing additional strength. Example: The haunch in the mortise-and-tenon joint added rigidity to the table legs.

Haunched Mortise-and-Tenon: A variation of the mortise-and-tenon joint with a haunch to increase the gluing surface and strength. Example: Haunched mortise-and-tenon joints were used in the door construction for enhanced stability.

HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene): A strong, durable plastic material used in woodworking for jigs, fixtures, and machine parts. Example: HDPE was used to make the fence on the router table due to its low friction and wear resistance.

Head: The end of a tool or component, often referring to the part that performs the work, such as the head of a hammer. Example: The head of the mallet was made from a dense hardwood to deliver a solid strike without damaging the wood.

Head Plate: A plate or cap at the end of a tool or machine component, often used for attachment or protection. Example: The head plate on the lathe spindle protected the threads from damage.

Heartwood: The older, harder, and usually darker central part of a tree trunk, offering more stability and resistance to decay. Example: The heartwood of the walnut tree was used for its rich color and strength in the dining table.

Heat Treating: The process of heating and cooling metal to alter its properties, such as hardness and durability. Example: Heat treating the chisel blades ensured they retained a sharp edge longer.

Hide Glue: A traditional adhesive made from animal collagen, known for its reversibility and use in fine woodworking. Example: Hide glue was used in the restoration of the antique chair to maintain historical accuracy.

High-Speed Steel (HSS): A type of steel used in cutting tools, known for its ability to withstand high temperatures without losing hardness. Example: High-speed steel drill bits were used for their durability and sharpness when drilling through hardwood.

Hinge: A mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, allowing a limited angle of rotation between them. Example: Brass hinges were installed on the cabinet doors for smooth opening and closing.

Hinge Mortise: A recess cut into a door or frame to fit the hinge flush with the surface. Example: Precise hinge mortises were chiseled out to ensure the door hung evenly and closed properly.

Hold Down: A device used to secure a workpiece in place during machining or assembly. Example: Hold downs were used on the CNC router table to keep the material firmly in place during cutting.

Hole Saw: A circular cutting tool used to make large diameter holes in materials like wood, metal, or plastic. Example: A hole saw was used to cut the circular openings for the speaker cabinets.

Hollow Grind: A concave bevel on a blade, typically created by grinding against a rounded wheel. Example: The hollow grind on the chisel provided a sharper edge for fine woodworking tasks.

Hollow Vessel: A turned wood object with a hollow interior, such as a vase or bowl. Example: The woodturner crafted a beautiful hollow vessel from a piece of figured maple.

Hollow-Ground: Referring to a blade that has been ground to create a concave surface on its sides. Example: The hollow-ground blade on the knife allowed for finer, more precise cuts.

Hollowing Tool: A specialized tool used in woodturning to remove material from the inside of a hollow form. Example: The hollowing tool was essential for shaping the interior of the turned wooden vase.

Hone: To sharpen a blade or tool by grinding it on a stone or other abrasive surface. Example: The woodworker honed the plane iron on a whetstone to achieve a razor-sharp edge.

Honing Guide: A device used to hold a blade at a consistent angle while sharpening on a stone. Example: The honing guide ensured the chisel was sharpened at the correct angle for optimal performance.

Hook: A curved or angled end on a tool or component, often used for hanging or securing items. Example: The hook on the end of the measuring tape made it easy to secure it to the edge of the board for accurate measurements.

Horned Dado: A dado cut that extends to the edge of the workpiece, creating a horn-like protrusion at the end. Example: The horned dado was used in the bookshelf design to allow the shelves to slot securely into the sides.

Horns: Extensions at the ends of a workbench or other structure, used for clamping or securing workpieces. Example: The woodworker used the bench’s horns to clamp down a large board for planing.

Horsepower: A unit of measurement for power, commonly used to describe the capability of motors in woodworking machinery. Example: The table saw had a 3-horsepower motor, providing ample power for cutting through thick hardwoods.

Hot-Melt Glue: A type of thermoplastic adhesive that is applied hot and solidifies as it cools, commonly used in woodworking for quick bonds. Example: Hot-melt glue was used to temporarily hold the template in place during routing.

HVLP (High Volume Low Pressure): A type of spray system used for applying finishes, using high volume of air at low pressure to minimize overspray. Example: The HVLP spray system provided a smooth, even finish on the cabinet doors with minimal waste.

Hybrid Table Saw: A table saw that combines features of both cabinet and contractor saws, offering a balance of performance and affordability. Example: The hybrid table saw was chosen for its robust construction and more affordable price compared to a full cabinet saw.

Impact Driver: A power tool that delivers high torque output, ideal for driving screws and bolts. Example: The impact driver made quick work of assembling the deck, driving screws effortlessly.

Imperial/English: A system of measurement used in the United States, based on inches, feet, and yards. Example: The woodworking plans were provided in imperial measurements, with dimensions given in inches and feet.

Induction Motor: A type of electric motor commonly used in stationary power tools, known for its durability and low maintenance. Example: The jointer was equipped with an induction motor, offering reliable performance and quiet operation.

Infeed: The side of a machine where material is introduced for processing. Example: The woodworker carefully fed the board into the infeed side of the planer.

Inlay: A decorative technique where a contrasting material is set into the surface of wood. Example: The tabletop featured an intricate inlay of walnut in a maple field, creating a striking pattern.

Insert: A replaceable component in a tool or machine, such as a cutting blade or a throat plate. Example: The router table had a removable insert to accommodate different sizes of router bits.

Insert Cutter: A type of cutter head with replaceable carbide inserts, used in woodworking machinery. Example: The insert cutter on the jointer allowed for easy replacement of dull blades.

Intarsia: A form of wood inlaying that involves fitting together pieces of wood to create a mosaic-like picture. Example: The intarsia artwork depicted a scenic landscape, crafted from various shades and species of wood.

Interlocking Joint: A joint where two pieces connect with complementary shapes that lock together. Example: The interlocking joint was used in the wooden puzzle, ensuring a snug fit without the need for adhesive.

Jack Plane: A versatile hand plane used for general smoothing and shaping of wood. Example: The jack plane was the go-to tool for flattening the rough-sawn lumber before final planing.

Jamb: The vertical sides of a window or door frame. Example: The door jamb was carefully measured and cut to ensure a perfect fit for the new door.

Janka (Janka Hardness Test): A test that measures the hardness of wood by determining the force required to embed a steel ball into the wood. Example: The Janka hardness test rated the hickory wood as highly durable, making it suitable for flooring.

Jaws: The clamping parts of a tool or machine, such as a vise or chuck, that hold a workpiece in place. Example: The jaws of the bench vise securely gripped the wood while it was being shaped.

Jig: A custom-made tool used to control the motion of another tool, ensuring precision and repeatability. Example: The dovetail jig ensured that all the joints were cut uniformly for the drawers.

Jigsaw: A power tool with a reciprocating blade, ideal for cutting curves and complex shapes. Example: The jigsaw was used for cutting intricate patterns and interior cutouts in the plywood.

Joinery: The art or process of joining pieces of wood together, typically using various types of joints. Example: The craftsmanship in the joinery of the wooden chest was evident in its seamless appearance and sturdy construction.

Joint: The point at which two pieces of wood are connected. Example: The corner of the frame was reinforced with a miter joint for both strength and aesthetics.

Jointer: A woodworking machine used to flatten and square the edges and faces of wood. Example: The jointer was essential for preparing rough lumber before it was passed through the planer.

Jointer/Planer: A combination machine that serves both as a jointer for flattening wood and as a planer for achieving uniform thickness. Example: The jointer/planer was a space-saving solution in the small workshop, handling two essential tasks with one machine.

Kerf: The width of the cut made by a saw blade. Example: The kerf of the blade was factored into the measurements to ensure accurate cuts.

Kerfing: The process of making a series of cuts (kerfs) in wood to allow it to bend. Example: Kerfing was used to create the curved form of the wooden lampshade.

Kickback: A dangerous situation where the wood being cut on a saw is thrown back toward the operator. Example: To prevent kickback, the woodworker used a riving knife on the table saw.

Kiln: A heated chamber used for drying lumber to reduce its moisture content. Example: The lumber was placed in the kiln for several weeks to ensure it was properly dried for woodworking.

Kiln-Dried Lumber: Wood that has been dried in a kiln to a specific moisture content suitable for woodworking. Example: Kiln-dried lumber was chosen for its stability and reduced likelihood of warping.

Knife: A tool with a sharp blade used for cutting or shaping wood. Example: The carving knife was used to add detailed features to the wooden figurine.

Knife Hinge: A type of hinge that is nearly invisible when the door is closed, often used in fine cabinetry. Example: Knife hinges were installed on the cabinet doors for a clean, minimalist look.

Knockdown: Furniture or structures designed to be easily disassembled and reassembled. Example: The knockdown bookcase was ideal for frequent movers, as it could be easily taken apart and transported.

Knot: A natural feature in wood where a branch was once attached to the tree, often appearing as a circular pattern in the wood grain. Example: The knot in the pine board added character to the rustic farmhouse table.

Lac Bug: An insect whose secretions are used to make shellac, a natural wood finish. Example: The shellac finish, derived from the lac bug, gave the wood a warm, amber hue.

Lacquer: A fast-drying, clear or colored wood finish that dries by solvent evaporation. Example: The lacquer finish provided a durable and glossy surface on the wooden guitar.

Lag Screw: A large, heavy-duty screw with a hexagonal head, used for fastening wood to wood or other materials. Example: Lag screws were used to secure the heavy wooden beams in the outdoor pergola.

Laminate: A material made by bonding layers of plastic, paper, or other materials, often used as a surface finish for furniture. Example: The countertop was covered with a laminate that mimicked the look of natural stone.

Laminate Trimmer: A small, handheld router used for trimming laminate or thin veneers. Example: The laminate trimmer was used to neatly trim the excess edge banding from the plywood shelves.

Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL): An engineered wood product made from layers of wood veneers bonded together under heat and pressure. Example: Laminated veneer lumber was used for the structural beams due to its strength and stability.

Laminated Wood: Wood that has been formed by bonding layers of veneer or thin strips of wood together. Example: The laminated wood was used to create a strong and curved component for the chair design.

Laminating: The process of bonding layers of material together to form a composite. Example: Laminating multiple layers of thin plywood allowed for the creation of a strong, curved form for the sculpture.

Laminboard: A type of engineered wood made from thin layers of wood chips or shavings, pressed and bonded together. Example: Laminboard was chosen for the shelving due to its affordability and uniform appearance.

Lap Joint: A joint where two pieces of wood overlap and are fastened together. Example: The lap joint was used to connect the horizontal and vertical members of the wooden frame.

Lapping Plate: A flat surface used for flattening and polishing tools, such as chisels and plane irons. Example: The lapping plate was essential for maintaining the flatness of the plane iron’s sole.

Latewood: The denser, darker wood formed in the latter part of the growing season. Example: The latewood in the oak board provided a beautiful contrast in the wood grain.

Lathe: A machine used for shaping wood, metal, or other materials by rotating the workpiece against a cutting tool. Example: The woodturner used the lathe to create a series of elegant wooden bowls.

Leg Set: A set of legs attached to a tool or machine to provide stability and proper working height. Example: The leg set was added to the band saw to raise it to a comfortable working height.

Length Stop: A device used to consistently cut multiple pieces of material to the same length. Example: The length stop on the miter saw ensured that all the frame pieces were cut to the exact same size.

Level: A tool used to determine whether a surface is horizontally or vertically level. Example: The carpenter used a level to ensure the shelves were perfectly horizontal before securing them.

Ligneous: Pertaining to or resembling wood. Example: The ligneous texture of the material gave the impression of natural wood.

Lignin: A complex organic polymer found in the cell walls of plants, giving wood its rigidity and strength. Example: The lignin in the wood fibers contributed to the overall strength and durability of the wooden beam.

Linseed Oil: An oil derived from flax seeds, used as a wood finish and preservative. Example: Linseed oil was applied to the wooden table to enhance its natural grain and provide protection.

Live Center: A component of a lathe that rotates with the workpiece, typically used in the tailstock. Example: The live center supported the end of the wood blank as it was turned on the lathe.

Live Edge: The natural edge of a piece of wood, often left uncut to showcase the organic shape of the tree. Example: The live edge coffee table featured the natural contours of the wood, adding a unique aesthetic to the piece.

Locking Half-Blind Rabbet Joint: A joint that combines a rabbet and a half-blind dovetail, providing both mechanical strength and aesthetic appeal. Example: The locking half-blind rabbet joint was used in the drawer construction for its strong, interlocking fit.

Lock-Miter Joint: A miter joint with interlocking profiles, providing a strong connection and a clean, mitered appearance. Example: The lock-miter joint was used to assemble the corners of the cabinet for a seamless look.

Lockout-Tagout (LOTO): A safety procedure used to ensure that machines are properly shut off and not started up again before maintenance or repair work is completed. Example: Lockout-tagout procedures were followed during the maintenance of the industrial woodworking machinery to ensure worker safety.

Long Grain: The direction of the wood fibers along the length of a board, typically the strongest and most stable orientation. Example: The long grain of the wood was oriented to maximize strength in the construction of the wooden bridge.

Loose Knot: A knot in wood that is not firmly attached to the surrounding wood, potentially causing a weak spot. Example: The loose knot was stabilized with epoxy to prevent it from falling out of the wooden panel.

Loose Side: The side of a veneer that was farthest from the tree’s center, typically more pliable and less likely to split. Example: The loose side of the veneer was placed facing outward for easier handling during the lamination process.

Lumber: Processed wood used for construction and woodworking, typically cut into boards or beams. Example: The lumber yard provided a variety of hardwoods and softwoods for different woodworking projects.

Luthier: A craftsman who builds or repairs stringed instruments, such as guitars, violins, and cellos. Example: The luthier carefully crafted a custom guitar, paying close attention to the wood selection and acoustic properties.

Machine Screw: A type of screw designed to be used with threaded nuts or tapped holes, often used in machinery. Example: Machine screws were used to secure the components of the woodworking jig.

Magnetic Starter: An electromagnetic switch used to safely start and stop electric motors, often found in industrial machinery. Example: The magnetic starter on the planer provided an added layer of safety by preventing accidental startups.

Mallet: A hammer-like tool with a large, typically wooden head, used for striking chisels or other tools. Example: The carpenter used a mallet to drive the chisel into the wood without damaging it.

Mandrel: A shaft or spindle used to hold workpieces or tools in place, especially in a lathe. Example: The woodturner mounted the bowl blank on a mandrel before shaping it on the lathe.

Mantel (or Mantle): A structure above and around a fireplace, often used as a shelf or decorative feature. Example: The hand-carved wooden mantel added a focal point to the living room.

Marking Gauge: A tool used to scribe a line parallel to an edge, typically in woodworking. Example: The cabinetmaker used a marking gauge to layout the joinery on the wooden panels.

Marquetry: The art of creating decorative designs by inlaying various colored woods or materials into a wood surface. Example: The intricate marquetry on the tabletop depicted a beautiful floral scene.

Materials List: A detailed inventory of the types and quantities of materials needed for a project. Example: The woodworker checked the materials list to ensure all components were available before starting the project.

Mediumboard: A generic term for medium-density manufactured wood products, like MDF or particleboard. Example: Mediumboard was chosen for the project due to its uniform texture and ease of machining.

Medium-Density Fiberboard (MDF): An engineered wood product made from wood fibers combined with resin and compressed into sheets. Example: MDF was used for the cabinet doors because of its smooth surface, ideal for painting.

Metric: A measurement system based on meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Example: The woodworker used metric measurements for the European-style kitchen cabinets.

Microporous: Describing a material that contains tiny pores allowing air and moisture to pass through. Example: The microporous finish on the wooden deck allowed it to breathe and resist moisture buildup.

Milk Paint: A traditional water-based paint made from milk protein (casein), lime, and pigments. Example: Milk paint was used on the vintage chair to achieve an authentic, distressed look.

Milling: The process of machining or shaping wood using saws, planers, and other tools. Example: Milling the rough lumber into smooth, dimensional boards was the first step in the woodworking project.

Mineral Spirits: A petroleum-based solvent used for thinning oil-based paints and cleaning brushes. Example: The painter used mineral spirits to clean the paintbrushes after finishing the woodwork.

Mission: Referring to a style of furniture characterized by straight lines and minimal decoration, associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. Example: The mission-style dining table featured simple, clean lines and solid construction.

Mission Style: A design aesthetic known for its simplicity and emphasis on craftsmanship, often featuring straight lines and flat panels. Example: The mission-style bookcase was admired for its sturdy construction and timeless appeal.

Miter Box: A tool that guides a saw for making precise angled cuts, typically at 45 degrees for miter joints. Example: The carpenter used a miter box to ensure accurate cuts for the picture frame.

Miter Gauge: An adjustable guide used on table saws and other tools for cutting angles. Example: The woodworker set the miter gauge to 45 degrees to make angled cuts for the table top.

Miter Joint: A joint made by beveling each of two parts to be joined, usually at a 45-degree angle, to form a corner. Example: The miter joint was used to create a seamless corner on the picture frame.

Miter Saw: A power saw designed for making accurate crosscuts and miters in a workpiece. Example: The miter saw was essential for quickly making precise angled cuts for the crown molding.

Miter Slot: A groove in the table of a saw or other tool to guide the miter gauge or other accessories. Example: The woodworker aligned the jig with the miter slot to ensure straight cuts.

Miter Square: A tool used to measure and mark precise angles, typically for miter joints. Example: The miter square was used to mark the angles for the picture frame corners.

Mitered Corners: Corners formed by joining two angled pieces, often at 45 degrees, to create a 90-degree corner. Example: The mitered corners on the window trim provided a clean, professional finish.

Moisture Content: The percentage of water present in wood, affecting its size, shape, and suitability for use. Example: The woodworker checked the moisture content of the lumber to ensure it was suitable for indoor furniture.

Molding (Moulding): Decorative strips of wood used to add architectural detail or cover transitions between surfaces. Example: The crown molding added an elegant touch to the room’s decor.

Morse Taper (MT): A standard for tapered shanks used on tools and machines for easy and reliable fitting. Example: The drill press used Morse Taper bits for quick changes and secure holding.

Mortise: A recess or hole cut into a piece of wood to receive a tenon for a joint. Example: The mortises were carefully chiseled out to fit the tenons in the door construction.

Mortise and Tenon Joint: A strong woodworking joint made by inserting a tenon on one piece into a mortise on another. Example: The mortise and tenon joint provided durable and stable construction for the wooden table.

Mortiser: A machine or tool used to cut square or rectangular mortises in a piece of wood. Example: The mortiser was used to quickly and accurately cut the mortises for the chair’s leg joints.

Motorized Table Saw: A table saw powered by an electric motor, used for making precise cuts in wood. Example: The motorized table saw was the centerpiece of the woodworking shop, used for a variety of cutting tasks.

Moulded Wood: Wood that has been shaped or formed, often using a mold or template. Example: The moulded wood trim added a decorative element to the custom cabinetry.

Movement: The expansion and contraction of wood due to changes in humidity and temperature. Example: The woodworker accounted for movement when designing the wooden table to prevent warping.

Moxon Style Vice: A type of bench vice with two screws, known for its large clamping capacity and ease of adjustment. Example: The Moxon style vice held the workpiece securely for hand-cutting dovetails.

Mullion: A vertical or horizontal bar between the panes of glass in a window. Example: The mullions in the window added both structural support and aesthetic appeal.

Muntin: A strip of wood or metal forming a division between panes of glass in a window or door. Example: The muntins gave the glass door a traditional, paneled look.

Nail Set: A tool used to drive the head of a nail below the surface of the wood. Example: The carpenter used a nail set to finish the trim work neatly.

Natural-Edge Turning: A style of woodturning where the natural edge of the wood is incorporated into the design. Example: The natural-edge bowl showcased the beautiful, organic edge of the wood.

Newel: A large, central, or end post of a stair railing. Example: The carved newel post added an elegant touch to the staircase.

NGR: Non-Grain Raising, referring to dyes or stains that do not swell wood fibers. Example: NGR stains were used on the fine furniture to achieve a smooth finish.

Nogging: Horizontal bracing or blocking between wall studs or floor joists. Example: Nogging was added between the joists for extra stability in the floor structure.

Nominal Size: The approximate or rough size of lumber before it is dressed or finished. Example: The nominal size of the lumber was 2×4 inches, but its actual size was slightly smaller.

Nondrying Oil: An oil that does not harden or cure, used as a lubricant or finish. Example: Nondrying oil was used on the wooden tool handles to keep them supple.

Nosing: The projecting edge of a stair tread or a shelf. Example: The nosing on the stairs was rounded for a smooth, finished appearance.

Notch: A V-shaped or rectangular cut made in the edge or end of a piece of wood. Example: Notches were cut into the rafters to fit them securely to the ridge beam.

Offcut: A piece of wood that remains after cutting a larger piece; often used for smaller projects or test cuts. Example: The offcuts from the shelving project were used to make a small birdhouse.

Ogee: A type of curved profile in molding, resembling an S-shape. Example: The ogee edge on the countertop added a decorative, classic look.

One-By (1-by): Referring to lumber that is nominally 1 inch thick, such as 1×4 or 1×6. Example: The project called for several lengths of one-by pine boards.

One-Off: A unique, custom-made item or project, not mass-produced. Example: The artisan crafted a one-off coffee table from reclaimed wood.

Open Coat: Abrasive products with less dense grit distribution, reducing clogging when sanding soft or gummy materials. Example: Open coat sandpaper was used to sand the pine without clogging the grit.

Open Time: The period during which an adhesive remains workable after application. Example: The glue’s open time allowed for adjustments before the joint set.

Open-Coat: Referring to sandpaper with spaced grit to prevent clogging when sanding softer materials. Example: Open-coat sandpaper was ideal for sanding the resin-rich cedar wood.

Open-grained: Refers to wood with large pores, such as oak or ash, which often requires filling for a smooth finish. Example: The open-grained texture of the oak gave the furniture a distinctive, rustic look.

Orbital: Pertaining to a motion that combines spinning and oscillating, often used in reference to sanders. Example: The orbital action of the sander helped to reduce sanding marks on the wood surface.

Orbital Sander: A power tool that uses an orbital motion to sand surfaces smoothly. Example: The woodworker used an orbital sander to prepare the cabinet doors for painting.

OSB (Oriented Strand Board): A type of engineered wood panel made by pressing layers of wood strands in specific orientations. Example: OSB was used as a cost-effective sheathing material for the shed walls.

Oscillating Drum Sander: A sanding machine where the sanding drum oscillates up and down, reducing marks and improving surface finish. Example: The oscillating drum sander was ideal for smoothing the curved edges of the wooden pieces.

Outboard Turning: Woodturning on a lathe where the workpiece extends beyond the headstock, allowing for larger diameter turnings. Example: Outboard turning was necessary to shape the large wooden bowl.

Outfeed: The part of a machine where the material exits after being worked on. Example: The carpenter used roller stands to support the long boards at the outfeed of the table saw.

Overlay Door: A cabinet door that covers or overlays part of the cabinet frame. Example: The kitchen cabinets were designed with overlay doors for a modern, seamless look.

Paint Thinner: A solvent used to thin oil-based paints and clean painting tools. Example: The painter used paint thinner to clean brushes after finishing the trim work.

Painter’s Tape: A type of masking tape used to protect surfaces from paint. Example: Painter’s tape was applied to the edges of the window glass before painting the frame.

Palm Sander: A small, handheld power sander designed for sanding in tight spaces. Example: The palm sander was perfect for smoothing the corners of the wooden box.

Panel: A flat, rectangular piece of wood or wood product used in construction and furniture making. Example: The cabinet doors were made from solid wood panels.

Panel Saw: A large saw used for cutting panels of wood or other materials. Example: The panel saw made quick work of cutting the plywood sheets to size.

Parallel Strand Lumber: An engineered wood product made from parallel wood strands bonded together. Example: Parallel strand lumber was used for the beams due to its high strength and stability.

Pare: To shave or cut the surface of wood with a chisel or knife. Example: The woodworker used a chisel to pare away thin shavings from the tenon for a perfect fit.

Particle Board: An engineered wood product made from wood chips and particles bonded together. Example: Particle board was used as a cost-effective option for the interior shelves.

Parting Tool: A narrow, pointed chisel used in woodturning to separate, or part, a finished piece from the stock. Example: The turner used a parting tool to finish and remove the wooden bowl from the lathe.

Pawl: A mechanical component that engages with a gear or ratchet to prevent backward movement. Example: The pawl in the table saw’s anti-kickback device prevented the wood from moving backward during cutting.

Peeling: The process of removing thin layers of wood from a log, often used in veneer production. Example: Peeling was used to create thin veneers from the log for plywood.

Peen: The rounded or pointed end of a hammer, opposite the flat striking face. Example: The ball-peen hammer was used for shaping metal hardware for the woodworking project.

Pegboard: A board with a grid of holes, used to hang tools and organize a workshop. Example: The pegboard on the workshop wall held various hand tools for easy access.

Pen Lathe: A small lathe used for turning pens and other small objects. Example: The woodworker used a pen lathe to craft custom wooden pens.

Penetrating Finish: A finish that penetrates into the wood, rather than forming a film on the surface. Example: A penetrating oil finish was applied to the walnut table to enhance its natural beauty.

Penny: A size designation for nails, abbreviated as ‘d’, indicating length. Example: The carpenter chose 8d nails for the framing work.

Perforated Hardboard: Hardboard with a series of evenly spaced holes, used for hanging tools or as a work surface. Example: Perforated hardboard was mounted on the workshop wall for tool storage.

Permeability: The ability of a material, like wood, to absorb or transmit fluids. Example: The permeability of the wood affected how it absorbed the stain.

Phillips: Referring to a screw or screwdriver with a cross-shaped head or tip. Example: The woodworker used a Phillips screwdriver to assemble the cabinet.

Phillips Head: A type of screw head with a cross-shaped recess, designed for use with a Phillips screwdriver. Example: The Phillips head screws provided a better grip for the screwdriver than flathead screws.

Piano Hinge: A long, continuous hinge used for joining two flat surfaces along their entire length. Example: A piano hinge was used for the fold-down desk surface to ensure even support.

Pigment: The solid particles in paint or stain that provide color. Example: The pigment in the stain gave the wood a rich, deep color.

Pigtail Scratches: Circular sanding marks left by power sanders. Example: The woodworker carefully sanded the surface to remove any pigtail scratches before finishing.

Pilaster: A decorative, flattened column attached to a wall or cabinet. Example: The pilasters added an elegant architectural detail to the bookcase.

Pilot Bearing: A bearing on a router bit or other tool that guides along the edge of the material. Example: The pilot bearing on the router bit followed the template to create a consistent shape.

Pilot Bit: A small drill bit at the center of a hole saw or larger drill bit, used to guide the main cutter. Example: The pilot bit ensured the hole saw started accurately before the larger teeth began cutting.

Pilot Hole: A small, pre-drilled hole that guides a screw or nail and prevents splitting. Example: Pilot holes were drilled before inserting screws into the hardwood to avoid splitting.

Pilot-bearing Guide: A bearing on a tool that guides the cut based on the shape of the workpiece or a template. Example: The pilot-bearing guide on the router ensured the cuts were precise and consistent.

Pin Nailer: A tool that drives very small, headless pins into wood, often used for delicate trim work. Example: The pin nailer was perfect for attaching the thin trim without splitting it.

Pin Router: A router with a pin or bearing that follows a template to duplicate shapes. Example: The pin router was used to create multiple identical parts for the chair production.

Pin/Brad: Small, thin nails used in woodworking, often with a pneumatic nailer. Example: Brads were used to hold the trim in place while the glue dried.

Pinch Sticks: A pair of sticks used to measure internal dimensions or check for squareness. Example: Pinch sticks were used to ensure the cabinet frame was perfectly square before assembly.

Pipe Clamp: A type of clamp that uses a length of pipe to determine its capacity, often used for large projects. Example: Pipe clamps were used to glue up the wide tabletop.

Pitch (number of teeth per inch): Refers to the number of teeth per inch on a saw blade, affecting the cut quality and speed. Example: A blade with a higher pitch was chosen for finer cuts in the hardwood.

Pitch (thick sap or resin in wood): The natural resin found in some woods, affecting the cutting and finishing process. Example: The high pitch content in the pine made it challenging to apply a smooth finish.

Pith: The central core of a tree, often less stable and not used in quality woodworking. Example: The pith was removed from the walnut board to avoid potential cracking.

Pivot Block: A guide block used in resawing that allows the workpiece to pivot for following a cut line. Example: The pivot block on the bandsaw helped in making precise curved cuts.

Pivot Hinge: A hinge that allows a door or panel to pivot around a single point, often used for revolving doors. Example: Pivot hinges were used for the small revolving cabinet door.

Plain Sawn: Lumber sawn so that the growth rings are nearly parallel to the board’s face, often resulting in a pronounced grain pattern. Example: The plain sawn oak had a beautiful, wavy grain pattern.

Planer: A woodworking machine used to create a smooth, uniform thickness across a board’s width and flatness along its length. Example: The rough lumber was passed through the planer to achieve a consistent thickness.

Plank: A long, thick piece of lumber, wider than a board. Example: The heavy oak planks were used for the rustic dining table.

Planking: The process of laying planks side by side, often used for flooring or decking. Example: The carpenter completed the planking for the new deck.

Platen: A flat plate in a sander or press that supports the workpiece during the sanding or pressing process. Example: The platen in the belt sander provided a stable surface for even sanding.

Plug: A small piece of wood used to fill a hole or cover a screw head, often made to match the surrounding material. Example: After installing the deck, the carpenter used wooden plugs to conceal the screw heads.

Plumb: Perfectly vertical or upright. Example: The carpenter used a plumb line to ensure the wall frame was vertically aligned.

Plunge Router: A router designed to start cutting at the surface of the material, with the bit moving vertically into the cut. Example: The woodworker used a plunge router to create mortises in the tabletop.

Plywood: An engineered wood product made by gluing together thin layers of wood veneer, with the grain of each layer at a right angle to the next. Example: Plywood was chosen for the cabinet backs due to its strength and stability.

Pneumatic: Powered by compressed air, as in pneumatic tools like nailers and staplers. Example: The carpenter used a pneumatic nail gun for faster and more efficient framing.

Pocket Hole: A hole drilled at an angle into one piece of wood, used to join it to another piece with a screw. Example: Pocket holes were used to assemble the bookshelf without visible screws.

Pocket Hole Joint: A type of wood joint where a screw is inserted into a pocket hole to join two pieces of wood. Example: The table frame was assembled quickly using pocket hole joints.

Points per inch (PPI): The number of teeth per inch on a saw blade, affecting its cutting ability and finish. Example: A saw with more points per inch was used for finer, more detailed cuts.

Pointside: The side of a saw blade where the teeth point towards. Example: When making a cut, the carpenter aligned the pointside of the saw blade with the marked line.

Polyurethane: A type of varnish used for finishing wood, known for its durability and resistance to water and chemicals. Example: Two coats of polyurethane were applied to the hardwood floor for protection.

Polyvinyl Acetate (PVA): A type of white glue used for bonding wood, paper, and other porous materials. Example: PVA glue was used to bond the wooden joints in the bookcase.

Positive Stop: A pre-set stopping point on a tool or machine, often used for repeated cuts at a specific angle or length. Example: The miter saw’s positive stop at 45 degrees made it easy to cut accurate miters.

PPE (Personal Protective Equipment): Safety gear used to reduce risk of injury, such as goggles, gloves, and ear protection. Example: The woodworker always wore PPE, including a dust mask and safety glasses, while working.

Preservative Treatment: The process of applying chemicals to wood to protect against rot, insects, and decay. Example: The outdoor deck wood underwent preservative treatment to enhance its longevity.

Primary Wood: The main type of wood used in a project, usually visible and chosen for its appearance. Example: Cherry was selected as the primary wood for the dining table due to its rich color.

Proud: Protruding slightly above a surface. Example: The inlay was left slightly proud of the surface before being sanded flush.

PSA (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive): A type of adhesive applied to one surface that adheres with pressure, commonly used in tapes and labels. Example: The woodworker used PSA-backed sandpaper for easy attachment to the sander’s pad.

PSI (Pounds per Square Inch): A unit of pressure used to measure the force exerted by air or other gases. Example: The pneumatic nailer required a compressor set to 90 PSI for optimal performance.

Pumice: A light, porous volcanic rock used as an abrasive in woodworking, particularly in finishing. Example: Pumice was used to rub out the final finish, giving the wood a smooth, glossy appearance.

Punch: A tool used to mark or create a small indentation in a material, often as a guide for drilling. Example: A center punch was used to mark drill points on the metal hardware.

Purlin: A horizontal beam along the length of a roof, resting on principals and supporting the common rafters or boards. Example: The carpenter installed purlins to provide additional support for the roofing material.

Push Stick: A safety device used to push a workpiece through a cutting tool, keeping hands away from the blade. Example: The woodworker used a push stick to safely feed the narrow board through the table saw.

PVA (Polyvinyl Acetate): A rubbery synthetic polymer used as the main ingredient in white glue. Example: PVA glue was the preferred choice for bonding the wooden joints due to its strong bond and ease of use.

Quarter-Sawn Wood: Lumber sawn so that the growth rings are approximately perpendicular to the board’s surface, resulting in a straight grain pattern. Example: Quarter-sawn oak was chosen for the flooring because of its stability and attractive grain.

Queen Anne: A style of furniture known for its lightness and elegance, popular during the reign of Queen Anne. Example: The Queen Anne chair featured graceful curves and ornate detailing.

Rabbet (Rebate): A recess or groove cut into the edge of a piece of wood, often used to receive another piece to form a joint. Example: A rabbet was cut along the edge of the shelf to fit into the cabinet side.

Rabbet Joint: A joint where a rabbet on one piece of wood receives a corresponding piece to form a connection. Example: Rabbet joints were used to assemble the back panel of the bookcase.

Rack: A framework or shelf for holding or storing items. Example: The woodworker built a rack to organize and store his clamps.

Rack and Pinion: A gear mechanism that converts rotational motion into linear motion, often used in adjusting machinery. Example: The table saw’s blade height was adjusted using a rack and pinion system.

Racking force: The force exerted that can cause a structure or piece of furniture to become skewed or distorted. Example: Proper bracing was added to the bookshelf to resist racking force.

Radial Drill Press: A drill press with an arm that can extend, pivot, and tilt, allowing for drilling in large or awkwardly shaped workpieces. Example: The radial drill press was ideal for drilling holes in the large, irregularly shaped pieces.

Radial-arm Saw: A versatile cutting machine where the blade is mounted on a horizontal arm and can be moved over the workpiece. Example: The radial-arm saw was used for crosscutting, ripping, and bevel cuts in the workshop.

Rafter: A structural component of a roof, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate. Example: Rafters were cut and installed to support the roof of the new shed.

Rail: A horizontal member in a frame or panel construction, such as in doors or cabinets. Example: The cabinet door was constructed with two stiles and two rails.

Rail-and-Stile Bit: A router bit set used to create the frame joints in panel doors. Example: The woodworker used a rail-and-stile bit to craft the elegant cabinet doors.

Raised Grain: The roughened texture of wood after initial sanding or exposure to moisture. Example: After the first coat of stain, the raised grain on the oak table was lightly sanded for a smooth finish.

Raised Panel: A panel in a door or cabinet that is slightly elevated above the surrounding frame. Example: The kitchen cabinets featured beautifully crafted raised panels.

Rake: The angle of a saw blade tooth relative to the blade’s plane. Example: The rake angle of the saw blade was adjusted for more aggressive cutting.

Raker: A tooth in a saw blade designed to remove material from the cut, keeping the kerf clear. Example: The raker teeth on the saw blade helped in efficient cutting and removal of sawdust.

Random Orbit: A sanding motion combining spinning and oscillation to minimize scratches. Example: The random orbit sander was perfect for achieving a smooth, swirl-free finish on the wood.

Rasp: A coarse file used for shaping wood. Example: The woodworker used a rasp to shape the curved legs of the chair.

Ray: A ribbon-like figure in wood, typically seen in quartersawn boards. Example: The oak’s rays added a distinctive pattern to the tabletop.

Ray Flecking: The appearance of ray cells in quartersawn wood, creating a decorative pattern. Example: The ray flecking in the quartersawn white oak gave the flooring a unique look.

Reaction Wood: Wood that has grown in response to stress or environmental factors, affecting its properties. Example: Reaction wood was avoided in the construction due to its potential for warping.

Rebated: Having a recess or groove cut into the edge or end, also known as a rabbet. Example: The window frame had a rebated edge for the glass pane.

Reciprocating: A back-and-forth movement, as seen in certain types of saws. Example: The reciprocating saw was used for demolition work due to its powerful cutting action.

Relief Carving: Carving where the figures are raised above the background. Example: The relief carving on the wooden panel depicted a beautiful nature scene.

Relief Cut: A cut made to release tension in a material, preventing unwanted splitting or cracking. Example: Relief cuts were made before bending the plywood for the curved form.

Resaw: To cut a thick piece of wood into thinner slices, typically using a bandsaw. Example: The woodworker resawed the walnut board to create thin veneers.

Resin: A natural or synthetic compound found in or used with wood, often for adhesion or finish. Example: The pine had a high resin content, giving it a distinct aroma.

Respirator: A protective mask worn to prevent inhalation of harmful dust and fumes. Example: The woodworker wore a respirator while sanding to avoid inhaling fine dust particles.

Reveal: The part of a structure or component that is visible or protrudes. Example: The door’s design included a reveal around the edges for aesthetic appeal.

Rift Sawn: Lumber cut at an angle to the growth rings, providing a straight grain appearance. Example: Rift sawn lumber was chosen for the flooring due to its stability and grain pattern.

Right Side: The front or face side of a piece of wood or finished project. Example: The right side of the panel was sanded and finished with extra care.

Rip: To cut wood along the grain. Example: The carpenter used the table saw to rip the boards to the correct width.

Rip Blade: A saw blade designed for making rip cuts, with fewer, larger teeth. Example: A rip blade was installed in the saw for efficient cutting along the grain.

Rip Cut: A cut made parallel to the wood grain. Example: The rip cut was made along the length of the board for the shelf.

Rip Fence: A guide on a saw table that keeps the wood aligned during a rip cut. Example: The rip fence was adjusted to ensure a straight and accurate cut.

Riser: The vertical component between the treads in a staircase. Example: The carpenter measured and cut each riser for the new staircase.

Riving Knife: A safety device on a table saw that prevents kickback by keeping the cut open. Example: The riving knife was an essential safety feature during long rip cuts.

Robertson Head: A type of screw head with a square recess, providing a secure fit for the driver. Example: The Robertson head screws were used for the deck construction for their strong hold.

Rotary Cut: Veneer sliced from a log as it is rotated, producing a continuous sheet. Example: Rotary cut veneer was used for the plywood due to its wide, consistent pattern.

Rotary Planer: A woodworking tool that uses a rotating cutting head to plane wood. Example: The rotary planer quickly smoothed the rough surface of the lumber.

Rotary Tool: A handheld power tool with various attachments for cutting, grinding, and sanding. Example: The rotary tool was used for detailed carving and finishing work.

Rottenstone: A fine abrasive powder used for polishing finishes. Example: Rottenstone was used to give the table top a high-gloss finish.

Rough Sawn Lumber: Lumber that is cut from logs but not yet planed or finished. Example: The rough sawn lumber was stacked for air drying before use.

Rough Turn: The initial shaping of a piece on a lathe, before final turning and finishing. Example: The bowl was rough turned to its basic shape before final detailing.

Rough-cut: To cut wood to approximate size before final shaping or finishing. Example: The boards were rough-cut to length before being planed to thickness.

Roughing Gouge: A large chisel used in woodturning for quickly shaping the rough piece. Example: The roughing gouge removed excess material from the wood blank on the lathe.

Rounded Wood: Wood that has been shaped or sanded to have a rounded edge or surface. Example: The edges of the table were rounded for a smooth, tactile finish.

Roundover: A convex, rounded edge profile, often created with a router bit. Example: A roundover bit was used to soften the edges of the shelves.

Router: A power tool used to hollow out or shape the surface of wood. Example: The woodworker used a router to create decorative edges on the cabinet doors.

Router Table: A stationary work surface with an inverted router mounted underneath. Example: The router table was used for precise shaping and edging of the wooden parts.

Routing: The process of hollowing out or shaping materials, typically wood, using a router. Example: Routing was used to create decorative grooves on the wooden door panels.

RPM (Revolutions Per Minute): A measure of the speed of rotation in a machine or a component, such as a drill or saw blade. Example: The drill’s RPM was adjusted to suit the hardness of the material being drilled.

Rubbing Compound: A mildly abrasive substance used to polish and smooth surfaces, especially in finishing work. Example: The woodworker used a rubbing compound to bring out a high gloss on the finished table.

Rubbing Out a Finish: The process of smoothing and polishing a finish, often with fine abrasives or steel wool. Example: Rubbing out the finish gave the cabinet a smooth, satin sheen.

Runout: The degree of wobble or deviation from true circular rotation in a saw blade or drill bit. Example: Excessive runout in the saw blade caused uneven cuts.

S2S (Surfaced Two Sides): Lumber that has been planed smooth on two opposite faces. Example: The carpenter purchased S2S lumber for the project to save time on planing.

S4S (Surfaced Four Sides): Lumber that is finished and smoothed on all four sides. Example: S4S lumber was used for the trim work, as it required no additional milling.

Sacrificial Fence: A temporary fence attached to a tool, such as a saw or router table, which can be cut into or damaged during use. Example: A sacrificial fence was clamped to the table saw to support the workpiece during cutting.

Safety Goggles/Glasses: Protective eyewear designed to shield the eyes from dust, debris, and other hazards in woodworking. Example: Safety goggles were worn to protect the eyes from sawdust and wood chips.

Sandblasting: A process of cleaning or etching a surface using a high-pressure stream of abrasive material, such as sand. Example: Sandblasting was used to texture the surface of the wood for a unique finish.

Sanded: The state of a surface after it has been smoothed with sandpaper or a sanding machine. Example: The tabletop was sanded to a fine finish before applying the stain.

Sanding Drum: A cylindrical tool covered with an abrasive surface, used for sanding curved or irregular shapes. Example: A sanding drum was used to smooth the inside curves of the wooden bowl.

Sandpaper: Abrasive paper used for smoothing or polishing surfaces by hand or machine. Example: The carpenter used various grits of sandpaper to prepare the wood for finishing.

Sandwich Construction: A method of construction where a lightweight core material is sandwiched between two layers of more rigid material. Example: The door was made using sandwich construction to reduce weight while maintaining strength.

Sap: The fluid that circulates through a plant or tree, often visible in wood as a different color or texture. Example: The presence of sap in the lumber required special treatment before finishing.

Sapwood: The younger, outermost wood in a tree, usually lighter in color than the heartwood. Example: The sapwood was used for its lighter color to contrast with the darker heartwood in the design.

Sash: A single frame for glazing in windows or doors. Example: The carpenter repaired the broken sash in the old window.

Saw (Blade) Guard: A protective cover over the moving blade of a saw, designed to improve safety. Example: The saw blade guard was lowered to cover the blade during operation.

Sawhorse: A supportive frame used to hold material in place while it is being worked on. Example: The planks were laid across sawhorses for cutting.

Sawyer: A person who operates a saw, especially in a lumber mill. Example: The sawyer expertly cut the logs into planks of various sizes.

Scales: The handles or grips on a tool, often made of wood, plastic, or metal. Example: The knife’s scales were crafted from beautifully grained wood.

Scarf Joint: A joint made by overlapping two tapered ends of material and gluing them together. Example: A scarf joint was used to extend the length of the wooden beam.

Scorp: A curved, edge tool used for hollowing out material, such as in bowl making. Example: The scorp was used to carve out the inside of the wooden bowl.

Scraper: A tool with a sharp edge used for smoothing or removing material. Example: The cabinetmaker used a scraper to remove the old finish from the chair.

Screw pocket: A hole drilled at an angle into one piece of wood for inserting a screw that will join it to another piece. Example: Screw pockets were made for assembling the bookshelf quickly and securely.

Scribing: The act of marking wood by scratching a line with a sharp tool. Example: Scribing was used to mark the exact dimensions on the wood before cutting.

Scroll Saw: A small electric saw with a fine blade for cutting intricate curves and patterns. Example: The scroll saw was perfect for cutting the intricate designs in the wooden ornaments.

Scroller: A person who specializes in using a scroll saw to create intricate designs and patterns. Example: The scroller demonstrated exceptional skill in crafting detailed wooden puzzles.

Scuff Sand: Light sanding given to a surface, often between coats of finish, to improve adhesion of subsequent coats. Example: The woodworker scuff sanded the dried primer before applying the topcoat.

Sealer Coat: The first coat of finish applied to wood, designed to seal the pores and prepare the surface for further finishing. Example: A sealer coat was applied to the wood to ensure an even absorption of the stain.

Seasoning: The process of drying lumber to reduce its moisture content and improve its workability. Example: The lumber was left for seasoning to reduce warping and shrinkage.

Secondary Bevel: An additional, slightly steeper bevel on the cutting edge of a tool, enhancing its sharpness. Example: The woodcarver added a secondary bevel to the chisel for finer cuts.

Secondary Wood: Wood used in areas of a piece that are not visible, such as drawer sides or cabinet backs. Example: Pine, a secondary wood, was used for the internal parts of the dresser.

Self-centering bit: A drill bit that aligns itself in the center of a hole or hardware for accurate drilling. Example: The self-centering bit was used to drill pilot holes for the cabinet hinges.

Self-Indexing: A feature in tools or machines that automatically aligns or positions a component for the next operation. Example: The self-indexing feature on the planer made it easy to achieve consistent thickness in the wood.

Self-Sealing Finishes: Finishes that act as their own sealer, eliminating the need for a separate sealer coat. Example: The woodworker chose a self-sealing finish for its convenience and time-saving properties.

Set: The bending of saw teeth out from the blade to widen the kerf and reduce binding. Example: Proper set of the saw teeth ensured smooth cutting without the blade getting stuck.

Set Screw: A small screw used to secure a device or component in place. Example: The set screw was tightened to hold the router bit firmly in the collet.

Set time: The amount of time required for a glue or adhesive to become firm enough to hold pieces together without clamping. Example: The set time for the epoxy was about 30 minutes.

Shake: A crack or separation in wood, often occurring along the grain. Example: The shake in the lumber was filled with wood filler before finishing.

Shank: The non-cutting end of a drill bit or tool that is held by the tool’s chuck. Example: The shank of the drill bit was securely fastened in the drill’s chuck.

Shank hole: A hole drilled to accommodate the shank of a screw, allowing the threads to grip into the receiving material. Example: Shank holes were drilled before driving the screws into the hardwood.

Shaper: A woodworking machine used for shaping or profiling edges of wood. Example: The shaper was used to create decorative moldings for the cabinet doors.

Shaving Horse: A traditional woodworking bench with a foot-operated clamp, used for holding wood while shaping it. Example: The woodworker used a shaving horse to hold the workpiece while using a drawknife.

Shear forces: Forces that cause parts of a material to slide past one another in opposite directions. Example: The joinery was designed to withstand the shear forces exerted on the table legs.

Sheen: The level of glossiness or shine on a finished surface. Example: The final coat gave the wood a satin sheen.

Sheet Goods: Manufactured panels, such as plywood or MDF, sold in standard sheet sizes. Example: The cabinet was constructed using various types of sheet goods for different components.

Sheet-Metal Screw: A type of screw designed for fastening to sheet metal. Example: Sheet-metal screws were used to secure the metal brackets to the wooden frame.

Shellac: A natural resin finish, dissolved in alcohol, used as a wood sealer and finish. Example: Shellac was applied to the antique table to restore its original luster.

Shim: A thin piece of material used to adjust the fit or level of an object. Example: Shims were placed under the table leg to level it on the uneven floor.

Shingle: A small, thin piece of building material, often wood, used for covering roofs and walls. Example: Cedar shingles were chosen for the roof due to their durability and natural appearance.

Shiplap joint: A type of joint where the edges of two boards overlap each other, commonly used in siding. Example: The garden shed was clad in boards with shiplap joints to ensure a weather-tight finish.

Shooting Board: A woodworking jig used for guiding a hand plane to make precise square or mitered cuts. Example: A shooting board was used to ensure perfectly square ends on the picture frame pieces.

Shop Vac: A powerful, industrial-strength vacuum cleaner designed for cleaning up sawdust, wood chips, and other heavy workshop debris. Example: After sanding, the woodworker used a shop vac to clean up the sawdust from the workshop floor.

Short Grain: The direction of wood grain that runs across the narrowest dimension of a board, making it more prone to breaking. Example: Care was taken when handling the board to avoid breakage due to its short grain.

Shoulder (blade): The part of a saw blade that supports the teeth and contributes to the blade’s overall stiffness. Example: The shoulder of the blade was reinforced to prevent bending during heavy cutting.

Shoulder (wood): The part of a woodworking joint where one piece of wood meets the perpendicular surface of another. Example: The shoulders of the tenon were carefully cut to ensure a snug fit in the mortise.

Shy: A term used when a component is slightly smaller than its intended size or slightly recessed. Example: The inlay was shy of the surface, requiring additional sanding to make it flush.

Silicon Carbide: A very hard and sharp abrasive material used in sandpapers and grinding tools. Example: Silicon carbide sandpaper was used for sanding the hardwood due to its durability.

Sill: The horizontal bottom part of a window or door frame. Example: The window sill was crafted from oak to match the rest of the woodwork in the room.

Skew: A tool or blade set at an angle, often used in woodturning and planing. Example: The woodturner used a skew chisel to create smooth, angled cuts on the spinning workpiece.

Skew chisel: A woodturning tool with an angled cutting edge, used for making smooth, beveled cuts. Example: The skew chisel was expertly maneuvered to shape the wooden bowl.

Skip Tooth: A saw blade configuration with widely spaced teeth for fast, rough cutting. Example: A skip tooth blade was used on the bandsaw for quickly cutting through the thick lumber.

Skirting or Skirting Board: A board running along the lower interior wall, used to cover the joint between the wall and floor. Example: The skirting board was painted white to contrast with the hardwood floors.

Sled: A device that slides in the miter gauge slots of a table saw, used for making accurate crosscuts or other precise cuts. Example: The crosscut sled ensured perfect 90-degree cuts every time.

Slicing: The process of cutting thin layers or veneers from a larger piece of wood. Example: Slicing was used to create thin veneers from the exotic hardwood for decorative inlays.

Sliding bevel: An adjustable tool used for marking and transferring angles. Example: The sliding bevel was set to the correct angle for cutting the roof rafters.

Sliding Dovetail Joint: A joint where a dovetail-shaped tenon slides into a corresponding groove, allowing for movement. Example: A sliding dovetail joint was used to attach the bookshelf top, allowing for wood expansion.

Sliding Table: An attachment for machinery, like table saws, that allows large or heavy workpieces to be moved smoothly and accurately. Example: The sliding table on the saw made it easier to cut large sheets of plywood.

Slip Match: A veneering technique where consecutive slices of veneer are placed side by side without flipping, creating a repeating pattern. Example: The cabinet doors were adorned with slip-matched walnut veneer for a symmetrical appearance.

Slip Stone: A small, often tapered sharpening stone used for honing curved blades like gouges. Example: The carver used a slip stone to sharpen the inside curve of the gouge.

Slot Mortiser: A machine or tool attachment used for cutting precise mortises or slots in wood. Example: The slot mortiser was used to create the square holes needed for the mortise and tenon joints.

Slotting cutter: A router bit used for cutting narrow grooves or slots in wood. Example: A slotting cutter was used to create the grooves for the bookshelf’s adjustable shelf supports.

Slurry: A mixture of water and fine abrasive particles, used for sharpening or honing tools. Example: The woodworker made a slurry on the whetstone to achieve a razor-sharp edge on the chisel.

Snipe: A defect caused by uneven planing, resulting in a deeper cut at the ends of a board. Example: The woodworker adjusted the planer to eliminate snipe at the end of the boards.

Soffit: The underside of an architectural feature, such as an overhang or archway. Example: The soffit was clad in stained wood to match the exterior trim.

Soft Start: A feature in power tools that gradually increases power to the motor, reducing torque and extending tool life. Example: The router’s soft start feature prevented it from jerking when turned on.

Softboard: A type of engineered wood product made from softwood fibers, used for insulation and soundproofing. Example: Softboard panels were installed in the workshop for sound absorption.

Softwood: Wood from coniferous trees, typically lighter and less dense than hardwood. Example: Pine, a common softwood, was used for constructing the framework.

Sole: The flat bottom surface of a hand plane or other tool that glides along the wood. Example: The sole of the plane was kept perfectly flat for effective smoothing of the wood surface.

Solid Surface: A man-made material used primarily for countertops and other surfaces, known for its durability and seamless appearance. Example: The workshop was equipped with a solid surface countertop for its resistance to stains and scratches.

Soss Hinge: A type of concealed hinge used for seamless appearance in fine cabinetry. Example: Soss hinges were used on the cabinet doors to maintain a clean, hardware-free look.

Spade bit: A flat, paddle-shaped drill bit used for boring large holes in wood. Example: A spade bit was used to drill the hole for the door’s lockset.

Spalted: Wood characterized by unique patterns caused by fungal growth, often sought after for its artistic value. Example: The spalted maple had distinctive black lines, making it ideal for decorative projects.

Spandrel: The triangular space between the outer curve of an arch and the rectangular framework surrounding it. Example: The spandrel was adorned with intricate carvings to enhance the archway’s aesthetic.

Species: A classification of wood based on the type of tree it comes from. Example: Different species of wood like oak, cherry, and maple were used to add variety to the hardwood floor design.

Specific Gravity: A measure of the density of wood compared to water. Example: The specific gravity of the wood was considered to determine its suitability for marine applications.

Spindle (machinery): The rotating shaft or axis in machines like lathes and routers, to which cutting tools or workpieces are attached. Example: The spindle of the lathe held the wood securely as it was turned.

Spindle (woodturning): A piece of wood being turned on a lathe, typically cylindrical in shape. Example: The spindle was shaped into a smooth, elegant table leg.

Spindle Sander: A power sander with a vertically mounted, oscillating spindle, used for sanding curved surfaces. Example: The spindle sander was ideal for smoothing the curved edges of the wooden brackets.

Splating: A form of wood discoloration caused by fungi, often creating attractive patterns. Example: The splating in the maple gave the piece a unique, artistic look.

Spline: A thin strip of wood inserted into slots in adjoining pieces to reinforce a joint. Example: Splines were added to the mitered corners of the picture frame for extra strength.

Spline joint: A joint where a spline is used to connect two pieces of wood, often in mitered corners. Example: The tabletop was assembled using spline joints for better alignment and strength.

Split Point: A drill bit design with a modified point to reduce walking and provide easier penetration. Example: The split point drill bit was used for precise drilling without a pilot hole.

Splitter: A safety device behind the blade of a table saw that prevents the cut wood from pinching the blade and causing kickback. Example: The splitter was adjusted to align with the saw blade for safe operation.

Splotching: Uneven absorption of stain in wood, resulting in a blotchy appearance. Example: To prevent splotching, a wood conditioner was applied before staining the pine shelves.

Spokeshave: A small hand tool with a blade, used for shaping and smoothing curved surfaces in wood. Example: The spokeshave was perfect for shaping the curved handles of the wooden spoons.

Spray-mount adhesive: An aerosol adhesive used for temporarily bonding materials, like attaching templates to wood. Example: Spray-mount adhesive was used to secure the paper pattern to the wood before cutting.

Square: A tool used for checking and marking right angles. Example: The carpenter used a square to ensure the frame was perfectly perpendicular.

Square Up: The process of making a piece of wood perfectly square on all sides. Example: The carpenter squared up the board to ensure it was perfectly aligned for the frame.

Squeeze-out: Excess glue that emerges from a joint when clamped. Example: After clamping the joint, the woodworker wiped away the squeeze-out for a clean finish.

Stacked Dado Head: A circular saw blade setup used to cut wide, flat-bottomed grooves. Example: The cabinet maker used a stacked dado head to create the grooves for the shelf supports.

Staff Bead: A small, decorative molding used in joinery. Example: Staff beads were added to the edges of the drawers for a more refined look.

Stain: A type of finish applied to wood to enhance its color or grain. Example: A walnut stain was chosen to give the pine table a rich, dark color.

Stave: A narrow length of wood used to construct cylindrical objects like barrels. Example: Oak staves were carefully shaped and assembled to create a traditional wine barrel.

Steam Bending: A technique where wood is steamed to make it pliable for bending into curved shapes. Example: Steam bending was used to create the elegant curved back of the wooden chair.

Stickers: Thin strips of wood used to separate and support lumber while it dries. Example: Stickers were placed between the freshly sawn planks to ensure even air circulation during drying.

Stile: The vertical members of a frame, especially in doors or windows. Example: The door’s stiles were carefully measured and cut to ensure a perfect fit.

Stop Block: A block used to set a fixed distance or stop for repeated cuts. Example: A stop block was clamped to the saw fence for making multiple pieces of the same length.

Stopblock: A device used to temporarily halt movement at a predetermined point. Example: The woodworker used a stopblock to ensure consistent drilling depths.

Stopped joint: A joint that does not extend all the way through the wood’s surface. Example: The carpenter used a stopped joint for the bookshelf, hiding the end of the dado.

Stopper: A device or object used to block an opening. Example: A wooden stopper was crafted to fit snugly into the mouth of the handmade vase.

Story Stick: A tool marked with specific measurements used as a reference for repeated cuts or marks. Example: The story stick ensured consistent spacing of the shelves throughout the bookcase.

Straight-line Ripping: Cutting a straight edge on a board using a table saw or a saw with a guide. Example: Straight-line ripping was necessary to prepare the rough lumber for joinery.

Strength Grade: A classification of lumber based on its load-bearing capacity. Example: The construction project required lumber of a specific strength grade to ensure safety.

Stretcher: A horizontal support piece in furniture, connecting legs or other vertical elements. Example: Stretchers were added between the table legs for additional stability.

String: A thin strip of wood used for decorative inlay work. Example: Intricate strings of contrasting wood were inlaid into the tabletop for a decorative effect.

Structural Timber Composites: Engineered wood products designed for load-bearing applications. Example: Structural timber composites were used in the construction of the roof trusses.

Stud: A vertical framing member in a building’s wall structure. Example: The drywall was attached to the studs to form the interior walls.

Style or Stile: The vertical pieces on the sides of a cabinet or piece of paneling. Example: The cabinet doors were framed with elegantly carved stiles.

SWMBO: An acronym for “She Who Must Be Obeyed,” humorously referring to a significant other’s influence in decision-making. Example: The woodworker joked that the choice of paint color was up to SWMBO.

Synthetic steel wool: A non-metallic abrasive pad used for finishing surfaces. Example: Synthetic steel wool was used for the final sanding before applying the finish.

Systainer: A stackable storage system for organizing tools and accessories. Example: The carpenter used systainers to keep all the power tool accessories neatly organized.

Table Saw: A woodworking tool consisting of a circular saw blade mounted on an arbor, driven by an electric motor. Example: The table saw was essential for making precise cuts for the cabinet project.

Tack Cloth or Tack Rag: A sticky cloth used to remove dust from surfaces before painting or finishing. Example: The woodworker used a tack cloth to clean the surface before applying varnish.

Tack Time: The time required for an adhesive to become tacky and ready for bonding. Example: The glue’s tack time was considered to ensure proper adhesion between the wood pieces.

Tail: The end part of a tool or component, often referring to the narrower end of a tapered object. Example: The tail of the chisel was securely fitted into the handle.

Tailstock: The adjustable end of a lathe that supports the workpiece. Example: The tailstock was moved to accommodate the length of the wood being turned.

Tambour: A flexible, slatted wooden panel used in roll-top desks and cabinets. Example: The tambour door smoothly rolled up to reveal the desk’s compartments.

Taper: A gradual decrease in thickness or width along the length of an object. Example: The table legs were designed with a slight taper for a more elegant look.

Taper Cut: A cut where the material is trimmed to gradually narrow towards one end. Example: Taper cuts were made on the chair legs for a refined design.

T-bolt: A bolt with a T-shaped head, used in woodworking jigs and fixtures. Example: T-bolts were used to secure the fence to the router table.

Tear Out: Damage caused by a cutting tool as it exits the wood, leaving a rough or chipped surface. Example: The woodworker adjusted the router speed to prevent tear out on the delicate veneer.

Teeth/TPI: Refers to the number of teeth per inch on a saw blade, affecting the cut quality and speed. Example: A higher TPI blade was chosen for finer cuts on the hardwood.

TEFC (Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled): A type of motor design where the motor is enclosed and cooled by an external fan. Example: The table saw was equipped with a TEFC motor for durability and long life.

Tempering: The process of heat-treating metal to increase its hardness and durability. Example: The chisels were tempered to maintain a sharp edge longer.

Template: A pattern or guide used to replicate shapes or designs in woodworking. Example: A template was used to consistently route the intricate designs on each piece.

Tenon: The projecting part of a joint, designed to fit into a corresponding mortise. Example: The tenons were carefully cut to fit snugly into the mortises of the frame.

Tension: The stress or force exerted on a material, often referring to the tightness of a saw blade. Example: Proper blade tension was crucial for accurate cuts on the band saw.

Tension Wood: Wood formed in response to stress or leaning in a tree, characterized by uneven properties. Example: The tension wood was avoided in the project due to its unpredictable behavior.

Tensioning: The act of tightening or adjusting the tension on a tool or component. Example: Tensioning the band saw blade ensured it was taut and ready for cutting.

Thickness Planer: A machine used to uniformly reduce the thickness of lumber and smooth its surfaces. Example: The thickness planer was used to bring the rough lumber to a consistent thickness.

Threaded Insert: A cylindrical fastener with internal threads, inserted into wood to provide a threaded hole for bolts. Example: Threaded inserts were used to assemble the workbench, allowing for easy disassembly.

Throat: The opening or space in a tool where work is performed, such as the distance from the blade to the frame in a band saw. Example: The saw’s large throat capacity allowed for cutting wider boards.

Through Dovetail Joint: A dovetail joint where the ends of the tails and pins are visible from both sides of the joint. Example: Through dovetail joints were used for the corners of the drawer for both strength and decorative appeal.

Through joint: A joint where the connecting elements pass entirely through the thickness of the material. Example: Through joints were used in the garden bench for a robust construction.

Through mortise-and-tenon joint: A mortise-and-tenon joint where the tenon passes completely through the mortise. Example: Through mortise-and-tenon joints added both strength and a decorative element to the timber frame.

Thrust Bearings: Bearings in a machine that support axial loads and maintain the position of rotating elements. Example: The thrust bearings in the band saw kept the blade stable during cutting.

Tiger Figuring: A pattern in wood grain resembling tiger stripes, often found in maple. Example: The tiger figuring in the maple added a unique visual texture to the tabletop.

Timber: Large pieces of wood used for building structures or as a material for construction. Example: The cabin was built using timber from the surrounding forest.

Tipping Off: The technique of lightly dragging a brush over a wet finish to smooth out brush marks. Example: After applying the varnish, he used tipping off to achieve a smooth surface.

T-nut: A type of nut with a flanged base, which can be inserted into wood, providing a threaded hole. Example: T-nuts were used to securely attach the legs to the wooden table top.

Toenail: Driving a nail at an angle to join two pieces of wood. Example: The carpenter toenailed the frame pieces together for extra stability.

Toggle Clamp: A fastening device that uses a pivoting arm and a lever system to apply pressure. Example: Toggle clamps were used to hold the workpiece firmly in place on the jig.

Tongue: A protruding edge on a board designed to fit into a corresponding groove on another board. Example: The floorboards were fitted together using a tongue and groove joint.

Tongue and Groove Joint: A joint where a protruding ‘tongue’ on one piece fits into a ‘groove’ on another. Example: Tongue and groove joints were used to connect the wooden panels seamlessly.

Tool Rest: A support bar on a lathe or other machine tool where the cutting tool is rested during operation. Example: He adjusted the tool rest on the lathe for turning a wooden bowl.

Torque: A measure of the twisting force applied, often used in reference to power tools. Example: The drill’s high torque setting was used for driving screws into hardwood.

Torx Head: A screw head with a six-point star-shaped pattern, providing better grip than traditional heads. Example: Torx head screws were chosen for their resistance to cam-out.

Touch-Sanding: Lightly sanding between coats of finish to achieve a smooth surface. Example: He performed touch-sanding between each coat of lacquer.

TPI (Teeth Per Inch): A measure of the number of teeth in a saw blade per inch, affecting the cut’s fineness. Example: A higher TPI blade was selected for cutting the delicate trim.

Transom: A horizontal structural beam or bar above a window or door. Example: The stained glass transom added a decorative element above the front door.

Treenware: Small wooden household items, such as utensils or bowls. Example: The kitchen was adorned with hand-carved treenware.

Triple Chip: A tooth design on saw blades where every third tooth is chamfered for efficient cutting. Example: The triple chip blade was ideal for cutting through the laminate without chipping.

Truing: The process of making a surface or edge straight, flat, and even. Example: Truing the edge of the board was necessary before joining.

Trunnion: A cylindrical projection used as a pivot or mounting point, especially in machinery. Example: The table saw’s blade tilt mechanism was supported by robust trunnions.

Trunnions: Pivoting supports that allow movement of machinery parts, such as a saw blade. Example: The band saw’s blade tension was adjusted via its trunnions.

Try Square: A woodworking tool used for marking and measuring a square angle. Example: He used a try square to ensure the corners were perfectly 90 degrees.

T-slot: A T-shaped slot, typically in a workbench or machine table, for attaching clamps or jigs. Example: The router table featured a T-slot for securing the guide fence.

Tung Oil: A drying oil extracted from tung tree seeds, used as a wood finish. Example: Tung oil was applied to the wooden bowl to enhance its natural grain.

Tungsten Carbide: A very hard material used in cutting tools for its wear resistance. Example: The saw blade was tipped with tungsten carbide to maintain sharpness longer.

Turn Between Centers: In woodturning, the method of turning a workpiece mounted between the headstock and tailstock. Example: He crafted a wooden spindle by turning it between centers.

Turning: The process of shaping wood on a lathe by rotating it against a cutting tool. Example: Turning was his favorite woodworking technique for making bowls.

Twist: A distortion where a board warps along its length. Example: The plank had a slight twist, making it unsuitable for the tabletop.

Twist Bit: A common type of drill bit with a spiraled shaft used for boring holes. Example: A twist bit was used to drill pilot holes for the screws.

Twist drill: A rotating cutting tool with helical flutes, used for drilling holes in various materials. Example: He used a twist drill to bore holes for the dowels.

Two-By (2-By): A common lumber size, nominally 2 inches thick by various widths and lengths. Example: The frame was constructed using 2-by-4 lumber.

UHMW (Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Plastic): A tough, wear-resistant plastic used in jigs and fixtures. Example: UHMW strips were used on the jig to reduce friction.

Undercutting: Cutting away material from beneath a surface or edge. Example: Undercutting the door allowed it to close smoothly over the carpet.

Unisaw: A popular model of professional-grade table saw manufactured by Delta. Example: His workshop was equipped with a Unisaw, known for its reliability and precision.

Universal Motor: A type of electric motor commonly used in portable power tools. Example: The handheld circular saw was powered by a compact universal motor.

Urethane: A durable polymer used in varnishes and protective coatings. Example: A urethane finish was applied to the floor for its toughness and resilience.

UV (Ultraviolet): Referring to ultraviolet light, often used in reference to finishes that block UV rays. Example: The outdoor furniture was treated with a UV-resistant varnish.

Vacuum Press: A system that uses vacuum pressure to clamp veneer or laminate to a substrate. Example: The vacuum press ensured a firm and even bond of the veneer to the tabletop.

Vapor Respirator: A protective mask designed to filter out harmful vapors and particles. Example: He wore a vapor respirator while applying the solvent-based finish.

Varnish: A type of finish that provides a hard, protective layer on wood. Example: The varnish added a glossy sheen and protected the wood from moisture.

V-block: A block with a V-shaped groove used to hold cylindrical objects steady. Example: The V-block was essential for drilling precise holes in the dowels.

Vee Joint: A joint where the edges of two boards are cut at an angle to form a ‘V’ when joined. Example: The Vee joint was used for decorative trim on the cabinet doors.

Veiner: A small, narrow gouge used in wood carving for detailed work. Example: He used a veiner to add fine details to the carved figures.

Veneer: Thin slices of wood used for covering surfaces to give the appearance of solid wood. Example: The cabinet was made more affordable by using a walnut veneer over a cheaper substrate.

Veneer Press: A device used to apply even pressure across a veneer surface during gluing. Example: The veneer press ensured a smooth, bubble-free application on the plywood.

Veneer Roller: A tool used to apply pressure to veneer during the gluing process. Example: He used a veneer roller to firmly adhere the veneer to the curved surface.

Veneer Tape: A special tape used to hold pieces of veneer together before gluing them to a substrate. Example: Veneer tape kept the marquetry pieces in place during assembly.

Veneer-Core Plywood: Plywood made with a core of thin veneer layers, providing stability and strength. Example: Veneer-core plywood was chosen for its superior screw-holding ability.

Vibration Dampening Pads: Pads placed under machinery to reduce vibration and noise. Example: Vibration dampening pads were installed under the planer to minimize workshop noise.

Vice: A clamping device used to hold a workpiece in place. Example: The woodworking vice held the board securely for hand planing.

V-Jointed: A joint where two boards are joined at an angle to form a ‘V’ shape. Example: The V-jointed corners added a decorative touch to the picture frame.

V-tool: A carving tool with a V-shaped cutting edge, used for outlining and decorative cuts. Example: The V-tool was perfect for creating crisp lines in the relief carving.

Waferboard: A type of engineered wood product made from wood wafers and resin. Example: Waferboard was used for the sheathing due to its cost-effectiveness and strength.

Wainscoting: Wooden paneling that lines the lower part of the walls of a room. Example: The dining room was enhanced with oak wainscoting for a classic look.

Wall Plate: A horizontal structure in framing, fixed to the top of the wall studs. Example: The wall plate was securely attached to ensure the stability of the wall frame.

Walnut: A type of hardwood known for its strength and rich, dark color. Example: The craftsman chose walnut for the coffee table due to its beautiful grain.

Wane: The presence of bark or lack of wood on the edge or corner of a lumber piece. Example: The board had wane on one edge, revealing some of the tree’s bark.

Waney Edge: The natural edge of a piece of lumber, often with bark, giving a rustic appearance. Example: The waney edge on the shelf added a unique, natural aesthetic.

Warp: Distortion in wood causing it to deviate from its original flatness. Example: The door had a warp, making it difficult to close properly.

Wash Coat: A diluted finish applied to wood to control absorption of subsequent layers. Example: A wash coat of shellac was used to prevent uneven staining on the pine table.

Washboarding: A rippled surface effect on wood, often caused by uneven planing. Example: The cabinet door showed signs of washboarding after being hastily planed.

Water Stone: A sharpening stone used with water to grind and hone the edges of steel tools. Example: He used a water stone to sharpen his chisels to a fine edge.

Wax: A substance used to polish and protect wood surfaces. Example: The antique desk was regularly treated with beeswax to maintain its luster.

Web Clamp: A clamp with a long, flexible band used for clamping irregularly shaped objects. Example: The web clamp was perfect for gluing the round table frame.

Wedge: A piece of wood or metal used to secure joints or split wood. Example: Wedges were hammered into the log to split it for firewood.

Wet Processing: A method involving liquids, often used in wood treatment or finishing. Example: Wet processing was used to apply the preservative to the outdoor deck.

White Glue: A water-based adhesive used for bonding wood and other materials. Example: White glue was used to bond the pieces of the model airplane.

Whittling: The art of carving shapes out of raw wood using a knife. Example: He enjoyed whittling small figurines from branches in his spare time.

Wide-Belt Sander: A large sander with a wide belt, used for sanding large surfaces quickly. Example: The wide-belt sander was essential for smoothing the tabletop efficiently.

Winding sticks: Two straight sticks used to detect twists in a piece of wood. Example: He used winding sticks to check for any twist in the lumber before planing.

Wire Edge: A thin, sharp ridge formed on the edge of a blade during sharpening. Example: The wire edge was removed with a honing stone for a finer blade.

Witness Lines: Marks used to align parts correctly during assembly or machining. Example: He used witness lines to ensure the shelves were level during installation.

Witness Marks: Indicators left on a surface showing the former position of a part or hardware. Example: The witness marks revealed the original placement of the antique hardware.

Wobbly Dado Head: A type of dado blade that wobbles to adjust the width of the cut. Example: The wobbly dado head was set to cut a wide groove for the bookshelf.

Wood Block: A solid piece of wood used for various purposes, including as a base for cutting or carving. Example: The butcher used a heavy wood block for chopping meat.

Wood Conditioner: A product applied to wood to reduce blotchiness when staining. Example: Wood conditioner was applied to the pine to ensure an even stain application.

Wood Filler: A substance used to fill holes, cracks, or imperfections in wood. Example: Wood filler was used to repair the scratches on the wooden floor.

Wood Lathe: A machine used to rotate wood pieces for shaping or cutting. Example: He used a wood lathe to turn the legs for the handmade stool.

Wood Planks: Long, flat pieces of sawn wood, used in flooring, decking, and furniture. Example: The reclaimed wood planks were used to create a rustic farmhouse table.

Wood Strip: A narrow piece of wood used in various applications, including trim and inlay. Example: Thin wood strips were inlaid into the tabletop for a decorative effect.

Wood-Based Board: Engineered wood products like plywood, MDF, or particle board. Example: The shelving unit was constructed from a durable wood-based board.

Woodcut: A printmaking technique where an image is carved into a wood block and inked to create prints. Example: The artist specialized in intricate woodcuts depicting natural scenes.

Working Life: The time period during which a material, like glue or finish, remains usable. Example: The epoxy’s working life was only 20 minutes, so he worked quickly.

Workpiece: The piece of wood or material being worked on in a woodworking project. Example: The workpiece was clamped down securely before sawing.

Worm Drive: A gear arrangement in saws where a worm wheel engages with a worm to provide high torque. Example: The worm drive circular saw provided excellent power and control for cutting thick lumber.

Wormy: Wood characterized by holes and tunnels from insect damage, often valued for its unique appearance. Example: The wormy chestnut was chosen for its distinctive, rustic character.

X-Acto Knife: A precision knife with a sharp blade, used for detailed cutting and trimming. Example: He used an X-Acto knife for the delicate paper cutting required in his model-making.

X-Axis: The horizontal axis in a Cartesian coordinate system, often used in CNC machining. Example: The CNC machine moved along the X-axis to cut the wood.

Xylology: The scientific study of wood, including its structure and properties. Example: His interest in xylology led him to a career in sustainable forestry.

Yardstick: A measuring stick one yard long, used for measuring lengths. Example: He used a yardstick to measure the fabric for the curtains.

Y-Axis: In machinery and CNC routing, the axis that represents the vertical movement or depth of the tool. Example: The CNC machine’s Y-axis allowed for precise depth control when engraving the wood.

Yellow Glue: A common type of aliphatic resin glue used in woodworking, known for its strong bond and quick setting time. Example: He used yellow glue for assembling the wooden joints due to its strong adhesion and ease of use.

Yield: The amount of usable material obtained from a piece of lumber or wood after processing. Example: The yield from the walnut board was high, with minimal waste after cutting the required pieces.

Yoke: A clamp or securing device that holds two parts together, allowing them to move in unison. Example: The yoke on the woodworking jig ensured the pieces remained aligned during the cutting process.

York Pitch: A term used to describe the angle of a plane blade, typically around 50 degrees, used for planing difficult grains. Example: He switched to a plane with a York pitch blade to tackle the highly figured maple wood.

Z-Axis: In CNC machining and 3D printing, the axis representing the vertical movement of the tool or print head. Example: The Z-axis adjustment was crucial for achieving the right depth in the 3D-carved wooden sign.

Zero Clearance Insert: A table saw insert made to fit closely around the saw blade, reducing the size of the gap to prevent small pieces from falling through and to minimize tear-out. Example: He used a zero clearance insert on his table saw for clean cuts on the plywood.